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  1. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) is a chronic and crippling bone disease. This study aims to reveal novel diagnostic biomarkers of SONFH.

    Authors: Zhixin Wu, Yinxian Wen, Guanlan Fan, Hangyuan He, Siqi Zhou and Liaobin Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Early detection of scapholunate ligament (SLL) tears is essential after minor and major trauma to the wrist. The differentiation between stable and instable injuries determines therapeutic measures which aim t...

    Authors: Leonie Goelz, Simon Kim, Claas Güthoff, Frank Eichenauer, Andreas Eisenschenk, Sven Mutze and Ariane Asmus

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:84

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Previous research and published literature indicate that some patients with spinal diseases who underwent percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic decompression (PTED) still suffer some discomfort in the early r...

    Authors: Li-sheng Hou, Dong Zhang, Feng Ge, Hai-feng Li and Tian-jun Gao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:83

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has been widely used to treat one- and two-level cervical degenerative disc disease. Studies have shown the effectiveness of CDR in preserving range of motion (ROM) and delaying...

    Authors: Xiaofei Wang, Yang Meng, Hao Liu, Hua Chen, Beiyu Wang and Ying Hong

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:82

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Evidence has shown that velocity-specific exercise results in additional benefits for peripheral joint muscles by promoting their functions, however, its effects on spinal muscles are yet to be investigated. T...

    Authors: Sharon MH Tsang, Kenneth TK Chan, Parco LT Ho, Jacky CY Kwok, Daniel HT Tse and Henry HT Tsoi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:81

    Content type: Research article

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  6. This prospective cohort study reports on a modified technique, namely precise safety decompression via double percutaneous lumbar foraminoplasty (DPLF) and percutaneous endoscopic lumbar decompression (PELD) f...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Mingyan Deng, Hao Wu, Ye Wu, Chuan Guo, Dongfeng Zhang and Qingquan Kong

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:80

    Content type: Research article

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  7. To improve quality of care for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), general practitioners (GPs) and physiotherapists (PTs) in a Norwegian municipality initiated an intervention. The intervention aim...

    Authors: Nina Østerås, Irma Brandeggen Blaker, Tore Hjortland, Elizabeth Cottrell, Jonathan G. Quicke, Krysia S. Dziedzic, Steven Blackburn and Aksel Paulsen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:79

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Due to the unspecific symptoms of spondylodiscitis (SpD), an early radiological examination is necessary. However, controversially discussed is the need for magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine to ex...

    Authors: Jeanette Henkelmann, Timm Denecke, Philipp Pieroh, Stephanie Einhorn, Nicolas H. von der Hoeh, Christoph-Eckhard Heyde and Anna Voelker

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:78

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a primary cause of degenerative disc diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying the degeneration remain unclear. The immunoinflammatory response plays an important ...

    Authors: Zhu Guo, Chensheng Qiu, Christina Mecca, Yang Zhang, Jiang Bian, Yan Wang, Xiaolin Wu, Tianrui Wang, Weiliang Su, Xianglin Li, Wei Zhang, Bohua Chen and Hongfei Xiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:77

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Standard balloon kyphoplasty represents a well-established treatment option for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Aim of the present study was to evaluate two different methods of percutaneous augm...

    Authors: Antonio Krüger, Martin Bäumlein, Tom Knauf, Hugues Pascal-Moussellard, Steffen Ruchholtz and Ludwig Oberkircher

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:76

    Content type: Research article

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  11. If bone union is expected, conservative treatment is generally selected for lumbar spondylolysis. However, sometimes conservative treatments are unsuccessful. We sought to determine the factors associated with...

    Authors: Masaki Tatsumura, Hisanori Gamada, Shun Okuwaki, Fumihiko Eto, Katsuya Nagashima, Takeshi Ogawa, Takeo Mammoto, Atsushi Hirano, Masao Koda and Masashi Yamazaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:75

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Tibial intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures occur primarily in adolescents and young adults. However, the incidence of such fractures is increasing in adults, concurrent with an increase in sports injurie...

    Authors: Yupeng Chu, Ting Hu, Mangmang Chen, Chendi Jiang, Zhuqi Wu and Junwu Shi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:74

    Content type: Technical advance

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  13. The unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is a kind of benign tumor whose clinical treatments and efficacy are controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the elastic stable intramedullary na...

    Authors: Ke-Xue Zhang, Wei Chai, Jia-Jia Zhao, Jun-Hao Deng, Zhan Peng and Ji-Ying Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:73

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There is no recommended standard for positioning of a mouse for radiographic assessment of the spine. This is necessary to have reproducible radiographic data and avoid false positive results. The objective of...

    Authors: Zhe Yi Chen, Keith Dip Kei Luk, You Qiang Song, Bo Gao and Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:72

    Content type: Research article

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  15. We read with interest the article by Gomes et al. entitled: “Exercise program combined with electrophysical modalities in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial”. Gomes...

    Authors: Martin Bjørn Stausholm and Jan Magnus Bjordal

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:71

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:258

  16. Skeletal manifestations are predominant in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is the complex assessment of areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD), fracture ...

    Authors: Zsófia Pethő, Edit Kalina, Zoltán Pap, Katalin Hodosi, Rebeka Falcsik, Ádám Balogh, Zoltán Szekanecz and Harjit Pal Bhattoa

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:70

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy that may increase fracture risk and decrease bone mineral density (BMD). Some patients develop distal renal tubular acidification dysfunction under...

    Authors: Wangna Tang, Hongwei Jia, Baoping Wang, Yun Chai, Tong Liu, Hao Wang and Chenlin Dai

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:69

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Neck pain is prevalent among office workers. This study evaluated the impact of an ergonomic and exercise training (EET) intervention and an ergonomic and health promotion (EHP) intervention on neck pain inten...

    Authors: Venerina Johnston, Xiaoqi Chen, Alyssa Welch, Gisela Sjøgaard, Tracy A. Comans, Megan McStea, Leon Straker, Markus Melloh, Michelle Pereira and Shaun O’Leary

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:68

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been implicated in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). This study was aimed to explore the role and molecular mechanism of lncRNA HOXA terminal transcriptional RNA (HOTTIP)...

    Authors: Xianwei He, Kun Gao, Shuaihua Lu and Rongbo Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:67

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopy has been widely used to treat lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but the steep learning curve and difficulties in removing the calcified disc hinders the application of convent...

    Authors: Hao Wang, Tianyao Zhou, Yutong Gu and Zuoqin Yan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:65

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Guided rehabilitation beyond 6-months is rare following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), despite high prevalence of unacceptable symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Our primary aim was to dete...

    Authors: Brooke E. Patterson, Christian J. Barton, Adam G. Culvenor, Randall L. Cooper and Kay M. Crossley

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:64

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Locked titanium nails are considered the reference treatment for metastatic bone lesions of the humerus in patients with aggressive histotypes, high risk of fracture or when estimated survival is lower than 6 ...

    Authors: Carmine Zoccali, Dario Attala, Mattia Pugliese, Alessandra Scotto di Uccio and Jacopo Baldi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:63

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Recent research has suggested that cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1) may be an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Furthermore, a whole gene chip analysis suggested that the expression levels o...

    Authors: Xuan Chen, Jianyang Li, Yunjin Ye, Jingwen Huang, Lihua Xie, Juan Chen, Shengqiang Li, Sainan Chen and Jirong Ge

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:62

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in individuals with Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). To date, no study has investigated treatment of OSA in adult individuals with OI using positive airway pressure (PAP...

    Authors: Heidi Arponen, Adel Bachour, Leif Bäck, Helena Valta, Antti Mäkitie, Outi Mäkitie and Janna Waltimo-Sirén

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:61

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Displaced patellar fractures are commonly treated with open reduction and fixation with several different types of tension-band (TB) constructs. The main objective of this study was to compare the prevalence o...

    Authors: Xiao-zhong Zhu, Teng-li Huang, Hong-yi Zhu, Bing-bo Bao, Tao Gao, Xing-wei Li, Jun-qing Lin and Xian-You Zheng

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:60

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Authors: Cid André Fidelis de Paula Gomes, Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho, Fabiano Politti, Adriano Rodrigues de Oliveira, Cheila de Souza Bacelar Pereira, Aron Charles Barbosa da Silva and Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:59

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:258

  27. Full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy (FELD) is an alternative to posterior open surgery to treat a high-grade migrated herniated disc. However, because of the complexity of the surgery, success is dependent on th...

    Authors: Christopher Wu, Ching-Yu Lee, Sheng Chi Chen, Shao-Keh Hsu and Meng-Huang Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:58

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tibial shaft fractures (TSFs) are among the most common long bone injuries often resulting from high-energy trauma. To date, musculoskeletal complications such as fracture-related infection (FRI) and compromis...

    Authors: Willem-Jan Metsemakers, Kirsten Kortram, Nando Ferreira, Mario Morgenstern, Alexander Joeris, Hans-Christoph Pape, Christian Kammerlander, Sanjit Konda, Jong-Keon Oh, Peter V. Giannoudis, Kenneth A. Egol, William T. Obremskey, Michael H. J. Verhofstad and Michael Raschke

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:57

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a patchy and slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle. MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of patient muscles often show increased hyperinten...

    Authors: Leo H. Wang, Laura M. Johnstone, Michael Bindschadler, Stephen J. Tapscott and Seth D. Friedman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:56

    Content type: Case report

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  30. No studies to date have elucidated the clinical factors associated with pedicle screw pull-out during or immediately after surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of pedicle screw pull-out b...

    Authors: Satoshi Sumiya, Kazuyuki Fukushima, Yoshiro Kurosa, Takashi Hirai, Hiroyuki Inose, Toshitaka Yoshii and Atsushi Okawa

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:55

    Content type: Research article

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  31. PIA has been proven to be a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitospinal fusion. However, its predictive effect for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo OCF is unknow...

    Authors: Lin-nan Wang, Bo-wen Hu, Yue-ming Song, Li-min Liu, Chun-guang Zhou, Lei Wang and Xi Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis (TH) using an eight-Plate implant is one of the most common surgeries used for the correction of coronal angular deformities around the knee in adolescents. However, few studies ha...

    Authors: Zhen-Zhen Dai, Zhen-Peng Liang, Hao Li, Jing Ding, Zhen-Kai Wu, Zi-Ming Zhang and Hai Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:53

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Transthyretin and immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidoses cause amyloid deposition throughout various organ systems. Recent evidence suggests that soft tissue amyloid deposits may lead to orthopedic conditions ...

    Authors: Austin E. Wininger, Brian M. Phelps, Jessica T. Le, Joshua D. Harris, Barry H. Trachtenberg and Shari R. Liberman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:51

    Content type: Research article

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  34. This study aims to compare conservative versus surgical management for patients with full-thickness RC tear in terms of clinical and structural outcomes at 1 and 2 years of follow-up.

    Authors: Umile Giuseppe Longo, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Vincenzo Candela, Alessandra Berton, Arianna Carnevale, Emiliano Schena and Vincenzo Denaro

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:50

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Aseptic loosening of glenoid implants is the primary revision cause in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA). While supported by biomechanical studies, the impact of glenoid bone quality, more specifical...

    Authors: Sandrine Mariaux, Raphaël Obrist, Alain Farron, Fabio Becce and Alexandre Terrier

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:49

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The introduction of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) as a treatment option in complex proximal humeral fractures, has significantly extended the surgical armamentarium.

    Authors: AM Schwarz, GM Hohenberger, M Sauerschnig, M Niks, G Lipnik, G Mattiassich, M Zacherl, FJ Seibert and M Plecko

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:48

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Arthritis (or compression) gloves are widely prescribed to people with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of hand arthritis. They are prescribed for daytime wear to reduce hand pain and improve hand function...

    Authors: Alison Hammond, Yeliz Prior, Sarah Cotterill, Chris Sutton, Elizabeth Camacho, Calvin Heal, Jo Adams, Yvonne Hough, Terence W. O’Neill and Jill Firth

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:47

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal condition that makes walking difficult due to pain induced by weight-bearing activities. Treadmills that support the body weight (BW) reduce the load on the lower l...

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kataoka, Tomohiro Shimizu, Ryo Takeda, Shigeru Tadano, Yuki Saito, Satoshi Osuka, Tomoya Ishida, Mina Samukawa, Tohru Irie, Daisuke Takahashi, Norimasa Iwasaki and Harukazu Tohyama

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:46

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The effect of hyperalgesia on functionality remains uncertain for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). This study aimed examine the clinical measures and hyperalgesia’s effect on muscle activity, knee r...

    Authors: Jéssica Garcia Jorge, Ana Luiza Costa e Silva Cabral, Vanessa Martins Pereira Silva Moreira, Wallisen Tadashi Hattori and Valdeci Carlos Dionisio

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:45

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Thoracic scoliosis has been shown to be associated with hypokyphosis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the relationship of sagittal spino-pelvic parameters with different coronal curve pattern...

    Authors: Trixie Mak, Prudence Wing Hang Cheung, Teng Zhang and Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:44

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Musculoskeletal disorders are among the major reasons for years lived with disability. Approximately one third of the European working population report lower-extremity discomfort and many attribute these disc...

    Authors: Lars-Kristian Lunde, Suzanne Merkus, Markus Koch, Stein Knardahl, Morten Wærsted and Kaj Bo Veiersted

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:43

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a common complication in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). While functional outcomes of affected patients are good in childhood, it is not clear ho...

    Authors: Avi Marks, Mario Cortina-Borja, Dror Maor, Aresh Hashemi-Nejad and Andreas Roposch

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:42

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, proliferative neoplastic process that commonly affects synovial-lined anatomic spaces. The diffuse type (DPVNS) is characterized by invasion of the en...

    Authors: Daoliang Xu, Jianxia Wen, Shisi Zhang and Xiaoyun Pan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:41

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Keloids are characterized by disturbance of fibroblast proliferation and apoptosis, deposition of collagen, and upregulation of dermal inflammation cells. This benign dermal fibro-proliferative scarring condit...

    Authors: Chun-Ching Lu, Hao Qin, Zi-Hao Zhang, Cong-Liang Zhang, Ying-Yi Lu and Chieh-Hsin Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:39

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The aim of this study was that to compare clinical results between the rounded rectangular femoral tunnel ACL reconstruction (RFTR) and the conventional round femoral tunnel ACL reconstruction using a hamstrin...

    Authors: Junsuke Nakase, Yasushi Takata, Kengo Shimozaki, Kazuki Asai, Rikuto Yoshimizu, Mitsuhiro Kimura and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:38

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The Ilizarov segmental bone transport technique can be applied in the reconstruction of the bone defects with less invasive fashion and more versatility compared to other methods, while most studies were focus...

    Authors: Yanshi Liu, Maimaiaili Yushan, Zhenhui Liu, Jialin Liu, Chuang Ma and Aihemaitijiang Yusufu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:36

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Polyglucosan body myopathy 1 (PGBM1) is a type of glycogen storage disease that can cause skeletal muscle myopathy and cardiomyopathy with or without immunodeficiency due to a pathogenic mutation in the RBCK1 ...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Nan Wang, Wenbin Hu, Xuen Yu, Renming Yang, Yongzhu Han, Yan Yan, Na Nian and Congbo Sha

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:35

    Content type: Case report

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  48. Large post-traumatic tibial bone defects combined with soft tissue defects are a common orthopedic clinical problem associated with poor outcomes when treated using traditional surgical methods. The study was ...

    Authors: Yong-Qing Xu, Xin-Yu Fan, Xiao-Qing He and Hong-Jie Wen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:34

    Content type: Research article

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