- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Simultaneous gene transfer of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2 and BMP-7 by in vivo electroporation induces rapid bone formation and BMP-4 expression
© Kawai et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 11 May 2006
Accepted: 03 August 2006
Published: 03 August 2006
Transcutaneous in vivo electroporation is expected to be an effective gene-transfer method for promoting bone regeneration using the BMP-2 plasmid vector. To promote enhanced osteoinduction using this method, we simultaneously transferred cDNAs for BMP-2 and BMP-7, as inserts in the non-viral vector pCAGGS.
First, an in vitro study was carried out to confirm the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-7 following the double-gene transfer. Next, the individual BMP-2 and BMP-7 plasmids or both together were injected into rat calf muscles, and transcutaneous electroporation was applied 8 times at 100 V, 50 msec.
In the culture system, the simultaneous transfer of the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes led to a much higher ALP activity in C2C12 cells than did the transfer of either gene alone. In vivo, ten days after the treatment, soft X-ray analysis showed that muscles that received both pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 had better-defined opacities than those receiving a single gene. Histological examination showed advanced ossification in calf muscles that received the double-gene transfer. BMP-4 mRNA was also expressed, and RT-PCR showed that its level increased for 3 days in a time-dependent manner in the double-gene transfer group. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that BMP-4-expressing cells resided in the matrix between muscle fibers.
The simultaneous transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes using in vivo electroporation induces more rapid bone formation than the transfer of either gene alone, and the increased expression of endogenous BMP-4 suggests that the rapid ossification is related to the induction of BMP-4.
Non-viral gene delivery systems are potentially useful in gene therapies for tissue regeneration or repair [1, 2]. In particular, electroporation is attractive, because it is an easy and inexpensive method that requires only a plasmid and a device for performing electroporation [3, 4]. In addition, the method does not require viral vectors, expensive proteins, or carrier matrices. Previously, we constructed a human BMP-2 gene expression vector (pCAGGS-BMP-2) and showed that transferring the BMP-2 gene into rat skeletal muscles by in vivo transcutaneous electroporation induced ectopic bone formation . However, there was no significant relationship between the dose of pCAGGS-BMP-2 plasmid vector used and the volume, quality, or time course of the ectopic bone formation. In this model, the surface area the electrodes can cover restricts the volume of the injected plasmid to 50 μl. Furthermore, any interaction between the plasmid dose and the electrical parameters can affect the efficiency of the gene transfer . For clinical applications, it is important to optimize the method to enhance bone formation at the level of the intrinsic osteoinductive activity.
Comparative analyses of the osteogenic activity of various human BMP adenoviral vectors have indicated that each BMP has a different potential to induce bone formation [7, 8]. In culture, protein purified from the supernatant of adenoviral vector-infected epithelial cells expressing both BMP-2 and BMP-7 accelerates the differentiation of preosteoblastic or premyogenic cells into osteoblastic cells . In addition, culture supernatant from CHO cells that were transiently transfected with equal amounts of BMP-2 and BMP-7 expression vectors induces maximal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a mouse stromal cell culture system . These researchers concluded that the combined transfer of the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes to epithelial cells such as CHO or 293 cells produces the heterodimer BMP-2/7, and that it is the BMP-2/7 in the supernatant that enhances the differentiation of the preosteoblastic or myoblastic cells into osteogenic cells, leading to osteoinduction [9, 10]. However, there are few reports of the effect on bone formation of the simultaneous and direct gene transfer of two or more BMPs. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the combined gene transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 into skeletal muscles in rats using in vivo electroporation could induce ectopic bone formation more rapidly than the transfer of only one of these genes. In addition, the endogenous BMP-4 mRNA expression levels and BMP-4-expressing cells were examined, since several reports show that exogenous BMPs elevate the levels of other BMPs or BMP-4 mRNA [11–14]. Prior to the in vivo study mentioned above, the effect of the combined direct gene transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 into myoblastic cells was also assessed using an in vitro gene-transfer system.
Human BMP-7 cDNA was obtained by PCR with pUC BMP-7 as the template and the following primers: human BMP-7 forward primer, 5'-GAG AGA GAG AAGCTT GGA TCC ATG GTG GCC GGG ACC CGC (ATG, initial codon); human BMP-7 backward primer, 5'-AGA GAG AG AAGCTT CTA GTG GCA GCC ACA GGC CCG GAC CA (CTA, stop codon). Both primers had SwaI recognition sites (italicized). The PCR protocol consisted of 25 cycles of 15 sec at 98°C, 2 sec at 65°C, and 30 sec at 74°C, with KOD DNA polymerase (ToYoBo, Osaka, Japan). The PCR product was blunt-ended and ligated into the Eco RI-digested and blunt-ended cloning site of the pCAGGS expression vector, which contains the CAG (cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/chicken β-actin hybrid) promoter , to yield pCAGGS-BMP-7. The 1296-bp insert sequence was confirmed by DNA sequencing. PCAGGS-BMP-2 was described previously . Plasmids were grown in Escherichia coli DH5α. Plasmid vectors were prepared using a Qiagen EndoFree plasmid Giga kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany), as described previously .
ALP activity in C2C12 cells
We investigated the activity of ALP, which is a marker for osteoblastic differentiation, in C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblastic cell line, by directly and simultaneously transfecting them with equal doses of pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7. The cells were cultured at 1 × 105 cells per well in 12-well plates in 1 ml growth medium (DMEM, 15% fetal bovine serum) for 1 day before the transfection. The next day, 0.5 μg pCAGGS and 0.5 μg pCAGGS-BMP-2, 0.5 μg pCAGGS and 0.5 μg pCAGGS-BMP-7, or 0.5 μg pCAGGS-BMP-2 and 0.5 μg pCAGGS-BMP-7 were diluted in 100 μl Opti-MEM (Invitrogen, California, USA), then mixed with 4.0 μl Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, California, USA) in 100 μl Opti-MEM. These DNA-lipofectamine 2000 complexes were added to each well of 90% confluent C2C12 cells. One day after the transfection, the medium was changed. At 10 days after the transfection, the cells were rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and the cells from two 12-well plates were collected. The cells were lysed with 1 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 5 M NaCl, 0.5 M EDTA, 0.5 M NaF, and 10% Nonident P-40. The lysates were spun and the supernatant collected. The quantitative ALP activity data and total protein content of the supernatants were determined by the p-nitrophenyl phosphate method. One 12-well plate was used for the histochemical staining of ALP, performed using a Sigma diagnostic ALP kit (Sigma, St. Louis, MO).
Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were purchased from Kurea (Osaka, Japan) and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions in our animal facility. All procedures were approved by the Animal Research Control Committee of Okayama University (approval No.oku-2005110).
Intramuscular DNA injection and transcutaneous electroporation
Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR
Rats (each group N = 5) that had received injections of pCAGGS and pCAGGS-BMP-2, pCAGGS and pCAGGS-BMP-7, pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7, or pCAGGS alone were killed under general anesthesia and the target muscles were resected (0.15 g) at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after gene transfer. Total RNA was isolated from the targeted muscle using Isogen (Nippon Gene, Tokyo, Japan). mRNAs for human BMP-2, human BMP-7, rat BMP-4, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) were detected by RT-PCR using the following primers: human BMP-2 backward primer, 5'-TCTCTGTTTCAGGCCGAACA-3'; human BMP-2 forward primer, 5'-TCTGACTGACCGCGTTACTC-3'; human BMP-7 backward primer, 5'-CAAGCCCAAAATGGAGAGGA-3'; human BMP-7 forward primer, 5'-TCTGACTGACCGCGTTACTC-3'; rat BMP-4 backward primer, 5'-TTCTCCAGATGTTCTTCGTG-3'; rat BMP-4 forward primer, 5'-ACTGCCGCAGCTTCTCTGAG-3'; G3PDH backward primer, 5'-TCCACCACCCTGTTGCTGTA-3'; G3PDH forward primer, 5'-ACTGGCGTCTTCACCACCAT-3'. The human BMP-2 and BMP-7 forward primers were designed to hybridize with the sequence immediately downstream of the transcriptional start site of the CAG promoter, so the PCR products were not contaminated by plasmid or genomic DNA. RNA (1 μg) was incubated at 42°C for 1 hr in a total volume of 20 μl and then at 94°C for 3 min, followed by 40 cycles of 94°C for 1 min, 55°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 1 min. The PCR products were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis to detect the 285-bp human BMP-2 mRNA, 279-bp human BMP-7 mRNA, 546-bp rat BMP-4 mRNA, and 682-bp G3PDH mRNA.
Ten days after the gene transfer, the rats (each group N = 6) were sacrificed with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital. The injected regions of the calf muscles were excised and analyzed with a soft X-ray to detect calcified areas (SRO-M50, Saffron Inc., Tokyo, Japan).
Histological and immunohistochemical analyses
Specimens (each group N = 1) obtained 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after electroporation were fixed with 0.05 M phosphate-buffered 4% paraformaldehyde (pH 7.4), embedded in paraffin without decalcification, cut into 4-μm-thick sections, and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and von Kossa stain. For immunohistochemical detection of BMP-4, serial sections were rehydrated and immersed in 0.5% periodic acid solution for 10 min to eliminate the non-specific reaction by endogenous peroxidase, then incubated in PBS containing 10% bovine serum albumin for 15 min, and washed with PBS. They were then incubated with an anti-BMP-4 monoclonal antibody (Novocastra laboratories, Newcastle, United Kingdom) diluted 1:400. Antibody incubation was carried out for 12 h at 4°C, and the sections were rinsed several times before incubating them with peroxidase-labelled secondary antibody (Sigma, St. Louis, USA) diluted 1:200 for 1 h at room temperature. The incubation was terminated by washing the sections with PBS. The sections were then immersed in a medium that consisted of 3, 3'– diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (20 mg), 30% H2O2, (10 μl), and 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6) (100 ml) for 10 min at room temperature.
Results are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). The statistical analysis of differences in the ALP activity among the groups was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Fisher's comparison test.
ALP activity in C2C12 cells
Human BMP-2 and BMP-7 mRNA expression in muscles electroporated with pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7
Simultaneous and direct electroporation-mediated in vivo gene transfer of pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 induces more rapid ossification than the transfer of either gene alone
The induction of bone formation was investigated by radiographic and histological observations 10 days after the gene transfer.
Expression of rat endogenous BMP-4 mRNA
Immunohistochemical reactivity of BMP-4
In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the direct and simultaneous gene transfer of human BMP-2 and BMP-7 gene expression vectors (pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7) on osteoinduction using in vivo electroporation.
In vitro studies showed previously that BMP purified from the conditioned medium of cultured CHO cells that were transfected with equal amounts of BMP-2 and BMP-7 expression vectors increases the ALP activity of mouse stromal cells far better than BMP purified from the medium of cells transfected with one of these vectors alone. These results suggest that a BMP-2/7 heterodimer forms under these conditions and causes the high ALP activity, indicating that the BMP-2/7 heterodimer has a strong bone-inducing activity [9, 10, 16]. Furthermore, mixing the conditioned media from cells secreting either BMP-2 or BMP-7 alone does not increase the ALP activity synergistically [10, 16]. These systems had three steps: the first was the combined gene transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 into epithelial cells to produce BMP-2/7. Next the BMP2/7 protein was purified from the supernatant of these cells. Finally, the purified protein was added to the preosteoblastic or myoblastic cells. Here, we assessed the effect of the direct and simultaneous gene transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 into skeletal muscles. Before our in vivo study, we carried out an in vitro experiment using the mouse myoblastic C2C12 cell line to determine whether cells directly and simultaneously transfected with the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes would express these genes, as we hoped they would in vivo. In the present study, the C2C12 cells showed higher ALP activity in the group receiving the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes than in the control group or the groups transfected with a single BMP expression plasmid. These results agreed with the previous studies [9, 10].
Based on our in vitro study, we examined whether in vivo electroporation with equal doses of pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 is effective for bone formation. Ten days after treatment, direct and simultaneous transfer of the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes induced higher ALP activity (data not shown), and more intense calcification than did the transfer of either gene alone. In contrast, the calcified areas observed 10 days after the gene transfer with pCAGGS-BMP-2 alone were mostly cartilaginous tissue with very little bone. The muscles transfected with pCAGGS-BMP-7 did not form cartilaginous tissue, bone, or calcified areas during the observation period. Therefore, this study strongly suggests that the direct and simultaneous gene transfer of equal doses of pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 into skeletal muscles by in vivo electroporation was successful and resulted in greater osteoinductive activity than the direct transfer of either gene alone. This effect may be owing to the formation of the BMP-2/7 heterodimer as suggested for the in vitro studies [9, 10, 16]. However, to fully understand our results, we may need to consider the more complicated and dynamic events underlying osteoinduction in vivo, because the extracellular matrix components that bind to BMPs  and/or the different affinities of the BMPs for their receptors [18–21] must be involved in the osteoinductive activity. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the osteoinduction reported here. For example, a single vector that can express BMP-2 and BMP-7 simultaneously might be useful for assessing the influence of the BMP-2/7 heterodimer on osteoinductive activity in vivo.
Endogenous BMP-4 mRNA was highly expressed in the skeletal muscle of rats receiving the pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 genes, but its expression was much weaker in the skeletal muscles of rats receiving only one of the genes. It is reported that BMP-7 down-regulates BMP-4 mRNA through the stages of proliferation, matrix formation, and mineralization in long-term primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial (FRC) cells . In C2C12 cells, BMP-7 up-regulates the BMP-4 mRNA . On the other hand, BMP-2 inhibits BMP-4 mRNA expression initially, but stimulates it during the mineralization phase [11, 13]. In the costochondral growth-plate chondrocytes, BMP-2 induces the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in a cell maturation-dependent manner . However, this is the first report that the simultaneous gene transfer by in vivo electroporation of BMP-2 and BMP-7 increases the level of BMP-4 mRNA.
Under conditions of normal osteoblastic cell differentiation, rat BMP-4 mRNA is expressed in the early phase with peak expression levels during the proliferation and matrix formation phases, but it declines afterwards in FRC cells [10, 23]. In vivo, a transient elevation in the BMP-4 mRNA levels is reported in osteoprogenitor cells of the periosteum in the early stages of fracture repair [24–27]. Moreover, BMP-4 mRNA is detected in areas where fibroblast-like cells and preosteoblasts migrate, in the early stage of distraction osteogenesis . These results seem to suggest that BMP-4 plays an important role in the early phase of osteoinduction. Our histological results at 3 and 5 days, during the early phase of the BMP-4 mRNA increase, revealed abundant migratory spindle-shaped cells, i.e., fibroblast-like cells. These cells were in the same location as those that stained positive for BMP-4 by immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA and its increase in the early phase might be involved with the effective bone formation seen when the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes were simultaneously transferred into rat skeletal muscles by transcutaneous in vivo electroporation.
In this study, we used an animal model to study ectopic bone formation in the skeletal muscles to examine the efficiency of simultaneous and direct BMP-2 and BMP-7 gene transfer using in vivo electroporation. For clinical applications, it may be possible to reconstruct bone and the accompanying muscle in jaw areas that have been damaged, for example, by trauma or tumour treatment. Moreover, BMP-2 and BMP-7 gene transfer into the periostea to augment the alveolar ridge or fracture repair may enhance periosteal cell differentiation efficiently, because it is well known that periostea have multi-potential stem cells [29–31]. If successful, such clinical applications would be very significant and wide-ranging, and could include fracture repair, orthognathic surgery, alveolar ridge augmentation, and dental implants.
We propose that the direct and simultaneous gene transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 by in vivo electroporation is more effective than the transfer of BMP-2 alone, which we explored in an earlier paper using the same conditions, such as the dose of plasmid and the size of the electrodes . Since the major drawbacks of using adenovirus vectors, i.e., the need for titration, the potential toxicity, and the need to suppress the host immune response, are not necessary using this system, gene therapy via in vivo electroporation is safer and simpler than via viral vectors. As a methodological consideration, electroporation is quite suitable for the direct and simultaneous transfer of two or more BMP genes for bone regeneration therapy.
This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for scientific research from Okayama University and a Grant-in-Aid for young investigators (B) 17791301 from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
- Ferber D, Marshall E: Gene therapy: safer and virus-free?. Science. 2001, 294: 1638-1642. 10.1126/science.294.5547.1638.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nishikawa M, Huang L: Nonviral vectors in the new millennium: delivery barriers in gene transfer. Hum Gene Ther. 2001, 12: 861-870. 10.1089/104303401750195836.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aihara H, Miyazaki J: Gene transfer into muscle by electroporation in vivo. Nature Biotechnol. 1998, 16: 867-870. 10.1038/nbt0998-867.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maruyama H, Sugawa M, Moriguchi Y, Imazaki I, Ishikawa Y, Ataka K, Hasegawa S, Ito Y, Higuchi N, Kazama J, Gejyo F, Miyazaki J: Continuous erythropoietin delivery by muscle-targeted gene transfer using in vivo electroporation. Hum Gene Ther. 2000, 11: 429-437. 10.1089/10430340050015897.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawai M, Bessho K, Kaihara S, Sonobe J, Oda K, Iizuka T, Maruyama H: Ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene transfer to skeletal muscle using transcutaneous in vivo electroporation. Hum Gene Ther. 2003, 14: 1547-1556. 10.1089/104303403322495052.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolf H, Rols MP, Boldt E, Meumann E, Teissie J: Control by pulse parameters of electric field-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells. Biophys J. 1994, 66: 524-531.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Cehng H, Jiang W, Phillips FM, Haydon RC, Peng Y, Zhou L, Luu HH, An N, Breyer B, Vanicharn P, Szatkowski JP, Park JY, He TC: Osteogenic activity of the fourteen types of human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003, 85: 1544-1552.Google Scholar
- Li JZ, Li H, Sasaki T, Holman D, Beres B, Dumont RJ, Pittman DD, Hankins GR, Helm GA: Osteogenic potential of five different recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein adenoviral vectors in the rat. Gene Ther. 2003, 10: 1735-1743. 10.1038/sj.gt.3302075.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu W, Rawlins BA, Boachie-Adjei O, Myers ER, Arimizu J, Choi E, Lieberman JR, Crystal RG, Hidaka C: Combined bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -7 gene transfer enhances osteoblastic differentiation and spine fusion in a rodent model. J Bone Miner Res. 2004, 19: 2021-2032. 10.1359/JBMR.040821.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Israel DI, Nove J, Kerns KM, Kaufman RJ, Rosen V, Cox KA, Wozney JM: Heterodimeric bone morphogenetic proteins show enhanced activities in vitro and in vivo. Growth Factors. 1996, 13: 291-300.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen D, Harris MA, Rossini G, Dunstan CR, Dallas SL, Feng JQ, Mundy GR, Harris SE: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) enhances BMP-3, BMP-4, and bone cell differentiation marker gene expression during the induction of mineralized bone matrix formation in cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. Calcif Tissue Intl. 1997, 60: 283-290. 10.1007/s002239900230.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Erickson DM, Harris SE, Dean DD, Harris MA, Wozney JM, Boyan BD, Schwartz Z: Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 regulates costochondral growth plate chondrocytes and induces expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 in a cell maturation-dependent manner. J Orthop Res. 1997, 15: 371-380. 10.1002/jor.1100150309.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hino J, Matsuo H, Kangawa K: Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) gene expression is correlated with differentiation in rat calvarial osteoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999, 256: 419-424. 10.1006/bbrc.1999.0341.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yeh LC, Unda R, Lee JC: Osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulates the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic and their receptors in primary cultures of osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2000, 185: 87-97. 10.1002/1097-4652(200010)185:1<87::AID-JCP8>3.0.CO;2-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niwa H, Yamamura K, Miyazaki J: Efficient selection for high-expression transfectants with a novel eukaryotic vector. Gene. 1991, 108: 193-199. 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90434-D.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hazama M, Aono A, Ueno N: Efficient expression of heterodimer of bone morphogenetic protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995, 209: 859-866. 10.1006/bbrc.1995.1578.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reddy AH, Cunningham NS: Initiation and promotion of bone differentiation by bone morphogenetic proteins. J Bone Miner Res. 1993, 8: 499-502.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dijke TP, Yamashita H, Sampath TK, Reddy AH, Estevez M, Riddle DL, Ichijyo H, Heldin CH, Miyazono K: Identification of type I receptors for osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-4. J Biol Chem. 1994, 269: 16985-16988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenzweig BL, Lmamura T, Okadome T, Cox GN, Yamashita H, Dijke TP, Helden CH, Miyazono K: Cloning and characterization of a human type II receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995, 92: 7632-7636. 10.1073/pnas.92.17.7632.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Nishitoh H, Ichijo H, Kimura M, Matsumoto T, Makishima F, Yamaguchi A, Yamashita H, Enomoto S, Miyazono K: Identification of type I and Type II serine/threonine kinase receptors for growth/differentiation factor-5. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271: 21345-21352. 10.1074/jbc.271.5.2769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoffmann A, Gross G: BMP signaling pathways in cartilage and bone formation. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr Rev. 2001, 11: 23-45.Google Scholar
- Yeh LC, Tsai AD, Lee JC: Osteogenic protein-1 (BMP-7) induces osteoblastic cell differentiation of the pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C2C12. J Cell Biochem. 2002, 87: 292-304. 10.1002/jcb.10315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harris SE, Sabatini M, Harris MA, Feng JQ, Wozney JM, Mundy GR: Expression of bone morphogenetic protein messenger RNA in prolonged cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells. J Bone Miner Res. 1994, 9: 389-394.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakase T, Nomura S, Yoshikawa H, Hashimoto J, Kitamura Y, Oikawa S, Yakaoka K: Transient and localized expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 messenger RNA during fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 1994, 9: 651-659.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Onishi T, Ishidou Y, Nagamine T, Yone K, Imamura T, Kato M, Sampath TK, Ten DP, Sakou T: Distinct and overlapping patterns of localization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members and a BMP type II receptor during fracture healing in rats. Bone. 1998, 22: 605-612. 10.1016/S8756-3282(98)00056-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yaoita H, Orimo H, Shirai Y, Shimada T: Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and rat distal-less homolog genes following rat femoral fracture. J Bone Miner Res. 2000, 18: 63-70. 10.1007/s007740050013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshimura Y, Nomura S, Kawasaki S, Tsutsumimoto T, Shimizu T, Takaoka K: Colocalization of noggin and bone morphogenetic protein-4 during fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 2001, 16: 876-884. 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.5.876.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berven LG, Simpson H, Triffitt JT: Expression of BMP-4 mRNA during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits. Acta Orthop Scand. 1998, 69: 420-425.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang X, Xie C, Lin AS, Ito H, Awad H, Lieberman JR, Rubery PT, Schwarz EM, O'Keefe RJ, Guldberg RE: Periosteal progenitor cell fate in segmental cortical bone graft transplantations+ implications for functional tissue engineering. J bone Mine Res. 2005, 20: 2124-2137. 10.1359/JBMR.050806.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park J, Gelse K, Frank S, von der Mark K, Aigner T, Schneider H: Transgene-activated mesenchymal cells for articular cartilage repair: a comparison of primary bone marrow-, perichondrium/S periosteum- and fat-derived cells. J Gene Med. 2006, 8: 112-125. 10.1002/jgm.826.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Bari C, Dell' Acco F, Vanlauwe J, Eyckmans J, Khan IM, Archer CW, Jones EA, McGonagle D, Mitsiadis TA, Pitzalis C, Luyten FP: Mesenchymal multipotency of adult human periosteal cells demonstrated by single-cell lineage analysis. Arthritis Rhuem. 2006, 54: 1209-1221. 10.1002/art.21753.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/7/62/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.