Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, Gallacher D. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain. 2006;10:287–333.
Treede R-D, Rief W, Barke A, Aziz Q, Bennett MI, Benoliel R, et al. Chronic pain as a symptom or a disease: the IASP classification of chronic pain for the international classification of diseases:(: ICD-11:). Pain. 2019;160:19–27.
Ohayon MM, Stingl JC. Prevalence and comorbidity of chronic pain in the German general population. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:444–50.
Rustøen T, Wahl AK, Hanestad BR, Lerdal A, Paul S, Miaskowski C. Gender differences in chronic pain—findings from a population-based study of Norwegian adults. Pain Manag Nurs. 2004;5:105–17.
Dureja GP, Jain PN, Shetty N, Mandal SP, Prabhoo R, Joshi M, et al. Prevalence of chronic pain, impact on daily life, and treatment practices in India. Pain Pract. 2013;14:E51–62.
Arvidsson S, Arvidsson B, Fridlund B, Bergman S. Health predicting factors in a general population over an eight-year period in subjects with and without chronic musculoskeletal pain. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:98.
Bergman S, Jacobsson LT, Herrström P, Petersson IF. Health status as measured by SF-36 reflects changes and predicts outcome in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a 3-year follow up study in the general population. Pain. 2004;108:115–23.
Harker J, Reid KJ, Bekkering GE, Kellen E, Bala MM, Riemsma R, et al. Epidemiology of chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:371248.
Järemo P, Arman M, Gerdle B, Larsson B, Gottberg K. Illness beliefs among patients with chronic widespread pain-associations with self-reported health status, anxiety and depressive symptoms and impact of pain. BMC Psychol. 2017;5:24.
Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:160–72.
Andrews P, Steultjens M, Riskowski J. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: a systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2018;22:5–18.
Mansfield KE, Sim J, Jordan JL, Jordan KP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population. Pain. 2016;157:55.
Cimmino MA, Ferrone C, Cutolo M. Epidemiology of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25:173–83.
Bergman S. Psychosocial aspects of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:675–83.
Pisinger C, Aadahl M, Toft U, Birke H, Zytphen-Adeler J, Jørgensen T. The association between active and passive smoking and frequent pain in a general population. Eur J Pain. 2011;15:77–83.
Mundal I, Gråwe RW, Bjørngaard JH, Linaker OM, Fors EA. Prevalence and long-term predictors of persistent chronic widespread pain in the general population in an 11-year prospective study: the HUNT study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;15:213.
Arranz L-I, Rafecas M, Alegre C. Effects of obesity on function and quality of life in chronic pain conditions. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2014;16:390.
Aili K, Andersson M, Bremander A, Haglund E, Larsson I, Bergman S. Sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018;19:390.
Davies KA, Macfarlane GJ, Nicholl BI, Dickens C, Morriss R, Ray D, et al. Restorative sleep predicts the resolution of chronic widespread pain: results from the EPIFUND study. Rheumatology. 2008;47:1809–13.
Fillingim RB, King CD, Ribeiro-Dasilva MC, Rahim-Williams B, Riley JL. Sex, gender, and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings. J Pain. 2009;10:447–85.
Gran JT. The epidemiology of chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2003;17:547–61.
Racine M, Tousignant-Laflamme Y, Kloda LA, Dion D, Dupuis G, Choinière M. A systematic literature review of 10years of research on sex/gender and experimental pain perception – part 1: are there really differences between women and men? Pain. 2012;153:602–18.
Bartley EJ, Fillingim RB. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111:52–8.
Defrin R, Shramm L, Eli I. Gender role expectations of pain is associated with pain tolerance limit but not with pain threshold. Pain. 2009;145:230–6.
Civardi G, Mordenti P, Gussoni G, Politi C, Seghini P, Pasquini MC, et al. Gender differences in pain prevalence, characteristics, assessment and treatment in internal medicine patients: a post-hoc analysis of the FADOI-DOMINO study. Ital J Med. 2018;12(3):213–8.
Rovner GS, Sunnerhagen KS, Björkdahl A, Gerdle B, Börsbo B, Johansson F, et al. Chronic pain and sex-differences; women accept and move, while men feel blue. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0175737.
Skillgate E, Pico-Espinosa OJ, Hallqvist J, Bohman T, Holm LW. Healthy lifestyle behavior and risk of long duration troublesome neck pain or low back pain among men and women: results from the Stockholm public health cohort. Clin Epidemiol. 2017;9:491–500.
Bergman S, Herrström P, Högström K, Petersson IF, Svensson B, Jacobsson LT. Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic associations in a Swedish population study. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:1369–77.
Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e297.
Ware JE, Gandek B. Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51:903–12.
Sullivan M, Karlsson J, Ware JE Jr. The Swedish SF-36 health survey—I. evaluation of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and construct validity across general populations in Sweden. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:1349–58.
Haskell WL, Lee I-M, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116:1081.
World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Jama. 2013;310:2191.
Lindgren H, Gottsäter A, Qvarfordt P, Bergman S. All cause chronic widespread pain is common in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease and is associated with reduced health related quality of life. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;52:205–10.
Cohen J. Statistical power calculations for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
Bergman S, Herrström P, Jacobsson LT, Petersson IF. Chronic widespread pain: a three year followup of pain distribution and risk factors. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:818–25.
Papageorgiou A, Silman A, MacFarlane GJ. Chronic widespread pain in the population: a seven year follow up study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:1071–4.
Schaefer C, Mann R, Masters ET, Cappelleri JC, Daniel SR, Zlateva G, et al. The comparative burden of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia in the United States. Pain Pract. 2016;16:565–79.
Gerdle B, Björk J, Cöster L, Henriksson K-G, Henriksson C, Bengtsson A. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:102.
Weingarten TN, Moeschler SM, Ptaszynski AE, Hooten WM, Beebe TJ, Warner DO. An assessment of the association between smoking status, pain intensity, and functional interference in patients with chronic pain. Pain Physician. 2008;11:643–53.
Shi Y, Weingarten TN, Mantilla CB, Hooten WM, Warner DO. Smoking and pain pathophysiology and clinical implications. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:977–92.
Dean E, Söderlund A. What is the role of lifestyle behaviour change associated with non-communicable disease risk in managing musculoskeletal health conditions with special reference to chronic pain? BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015;16:87.
Kim CH, Vincent A, Clauw DJ, Luedtke CA, Thompson JM, Schneekloth TD, et al. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R42.
Scott JR, Hassett AL, Schrepf AD, Brummett CM, Harris RE, Clauw DJ, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced pain and fibromyalgia symptoms in chronic pain patients. Pain Med. 2018;19:2515–27.
Chan AM, von Mühlen D, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Regular alcohol consumption is associated with increasing quality of life and mood in older men and women: the rancho Bernardo study. Maturitas. 2009;62:294–300.
Larsson I, Andersson MLE. Reasons to stop drinking alcohol among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden: a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e024367.
Bergman S. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: a multifactorial process [PhD Thesis]. Lund: Lund University; 2001.