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  1. Spinal stiffness assessment has the potential to become an important clinical measure. Various spinal stiffness-testing devices are available to help researchers objectively evaluate the spine and patient comp...

    Authors: Maliheh Hadizadeh, Greg Kawchuk and Simon French

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:436

    Content type: Research

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  2. The outcomes for volar locking plate (VLP) and external fixation (EF) in distal radius fracture cases remain controversial. The current study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to assess VLP and EF, ...

    Authors: Qi Gou, Xiong Xiong, Dan Cao, Yuanliang He and Xu Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:433

    Content type: Research

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  3. Altered regional activation of the lumbar extensors has been previously observed in individuals with low back pain (LBP) performing high-effort and fatiguing tasks. It is currently unknown whether similar alte...

    Authors: Francesca Serafino, Marco Trucco, Adele Occhionero, Giacinto Luigi Cerone, Alessandro Chiarotto, Taian Vieira and Alessio Gallina

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:432

    Content type: Research

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  4. Metacarpal shaft fractures are a common type of hand fracture. Despite providing strong fixation strength, plate fixation has numerous shortcomings. Concerning internal fixation with Kirschner wires (K-wires),...

    Authors: Yung-Cheng Chiu, Cheng-En Hsu, Tsung-Yu Ho, Yen-Nien Ting, Ming-Tzu Tsai and Jui-Ting Hsu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:431

    Content type: Research

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  5. Few studies have reported the clinical outcomes of the medial reefing procedure and lateral release with arthroscopic control of medial retinacular tension in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation. The ...

    Authors: Kyung Wook Nha, Hyung Suh Kim, Sung Tan Cho, Ji Hoon Bae, Ki-Mo Jang and Sang-Gyun Kim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:430

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Biopsychosocial factors above and beyond pathoanatomical changes likely contribute to the severity of chronic low back pain. A pro-nociceptive endogenous pain modulatory balance (↓inhibition and ↑facilitation)...

    Authors: Demario S. Overstreet, Ava N. Michl, Terence M. Penn, Deanna D. Rumble, Edwin N. Aroke, Andrew M. Sims, Annabel L. King, Fariha N. Hasan, Tammie L. Quinn, D. Leann Long, Robert E. Sorge and Burel R. Goodin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:429

    Content type: Research

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  7. Single 6 ml Hylan G-F 20 injection, is indicated for knee osteoarthritis patients who have failed to respond to non-pharmacologic therapy and/or simple analgesics. To obtain more thorough understanding of the ...

    Authors: Yan Ke, Wenxue Jiang, Yongsheng Xu, Yajun Chen, Qingsong Zhang, Qingyun Xue, Jianhao Lin, Wilson Ngai, Gaowei Nian, Mir Sohail Fazeli, Yao Xie and Zhenan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:428

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tributyltin, a well-known endocrine disruptor, is widely used in agriculture and industry. Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could cause deleterious effects on bone health by impairing the adipo-ost...

    Authors: Mingjun Li, Dong Cheng, Hui Li, Wenhuan Yao, Dongmei Guo, Shu’e Wang and Jiliang Si

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:427

    Content type: Research

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  9. Segmental cervical instability is a risk factor for the progression of osteophytic bone spurs and development of myelopathy, and is treated as a relative contraindication of cervical laminoplasty. The aim of t...

    Authors: Lin Du, Yanzheng Gao, Changqing Zhao, Tangjun Zhou, Haijun Tian, Kai Zhang and Jie Zhao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:426

    Content type: Research

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  10. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of multiple doses of intravenous tranexamic acid (IV-TXA) on perioperative blood loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had undergone primary unilater...

    Authors: Bing-xin Kang, Hui Xu, Chen-xin Gao, Sheng Zhong, Jing Zhang, Jun Xie, Song-tao Sun, Ying-hui Ma, Xi-rui Xu, Chi Zhao, Wei-tao Zhai, Lian-bo Xiao and Xiao-jun Gao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:425

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Isolated degenerative joint disease and/or Freiberg’s infraction of the lesser metatarsophalangeal joint, although not frequent may become debilitating in the younger individual. Currently, once conservative m...

    Authors: Nikiforos P. Saragas, Paulo N. F. Ferrao and Andrew Strydom

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:424

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Studies describing the surgical approaches utilized for talectomy and their associated complications are scarce. We aimed to compare the surgical techniques and associated procedures from two groups of patient...

    Authors: Thamer S. Alhussainan, Omar A. Al-Mohrej, Abdullah Y. Almarshad and William J. Wade

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:423

    Content type: Research

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  13. Fibrinogen (Fbg) and D-dimer have been used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, previous research has reported conflicting results on the diagnostic value of D-dim...

    Authors: Xi Chen, Wenwei Qian, Xisheng Weng, Jin Lin, Jin Jin, Yiou Wang and Shibai Zhu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:422

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Isometric exercises for a flexed finger have been reported to be effective for treating trigger finger as the flexor tendon widens the space under the first annular (A1) pulley towards the palmar destination d...

    Authors: Shinya Tanaka, Kosuke Uehara, Ryota Sugimura, Toshiki Miura, Takashi Ohe, Sakae Tanaka and Yutaka Morizaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:421

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) prevents surgical site infections (SSI). In orthopaedic surgery, the use of prolonged SAP (PSAP) has been reported in daily routine, despite guidelines advising against it...

    Authors: Felix Rohrer, Anita Maurer, Hubert Noetzli, Brigitta Gahl, Andreas Limacher, Tanja Hermann and Jan Bruegger

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:420

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) sometimes present with stiffness of the cervical muscles. To investigate the pathophysiology of ME/CFS, this observational study comp...

    Authors: Takayoshi Matsui, Kazuhiro Hara, Makoto Iwata, Shuntaro Hojo, Nobuyuki Shitara, Yuzo Endo, Hideoki Fukuoka, Masaki Matsui and Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:419

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Pedicle screw insertion in osteoporotic patients is challenging. Achieving more screw-cortical bone purchase and invasiveness minimization, the cortical bone trajectory and the midline cortical techniques repr...

    Authors: J.-S. Jarvers, S. Schleifenbaum, C. Pfeifle, C. Oefner, M. Edel, N. von der Höh and C.-E. Heyde

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:418

    Content type: Research article

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  18. We examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy consisting of forearm skin rolling, muscle mobilization, and upper extremity traction as a preventive treatment for rats performing an intensive lever-pulling ...

    Authors: Mary F. Barbe, Michele Y. Harris, Geneva E. Cruz, Mamta Amin, Nathan M. Billett, Jocelynne T. Dorotan, Emily P. Day, Seung Y. Kim and Geoffrey M. Bove

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:417

    Content type: Research

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  19. The appropriate position of retractors to minimize the risk of femoral nerve palsy remains uncertain. The purpose of this imaging study was to evaluate the distance between the femoral nerve (FN) and anterior ...

    Authors: Kensuke Yoshino, Shigeo Hagiwara, Junichi Nakamura, Takuro Horikoshi, Hajime Yokota, Kenji Shimokawa, Koji Matsumoto, Yuki Shiko, Yohei Kawasaki and Seiji Ohtori

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:416

    Content type: Research

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  20. Pain is the hallmark symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and varies widely across individuals. Previous research has demonstrated both fluctuating and stable pain trajectories in knee OA using various time pe...

    Authors: Alisa J. Johnson, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Staja Q. Booker, Josue Cardoso, Ellen L. Terry, Keesha Powell-Roach, Roland Staud, Daniel A. Kusko, Adriana S. Addison, David T. Redden, Burel R. Goodin, Roger B. Fillingim and Kimberly T. Sibille

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:415

    Content type: Research

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  21. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of successful revision operation on health quality of life(QoL) and functional outcome in humeral nonunion patients.

    Authors: Zhimeng Wang, Yao Lu, Liang Sun, Leilei Song, Teng Ma, Qiang Wang, Kun Zhang and Zhong Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:414

    Content type: Research article

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  22. There has been a growing interest in using all pedicle screw construct in posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery in recent years. However, studies focusing on periopera...

    Authors: Mun Keong Kwan, Kwong Weng Loh, Weng Hong Chung, Chee Kidd Chiu, Mohd Shahnaz Hasan and Chris Yin Wei Chan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:413

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) can cause various neurological symptoms and reduce the daily activity of patients. Many studies have shown that free physical activities and exercise can improve bone mineral densi...

    Authors: Hyung-Youl Park, Ji-Yoon Ha, Ki-Won Kim, In-Hwa Baek, Soo-Bin Park and Jun-Seok Lee

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:412

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chronic low back pain is the most frequent medical problem and the condition with the most years lived with disability in Western countries. The objective of this study was to assess a new treatment, Medi-Tapi...

    Authors: Stefan Schmidt, Nicolas Wölfle, Claudia Schultz, Dieter Sielmann, Roman Huber and Harald Walach

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:410

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Bilateral rotator cuff tears are not uncommon and the timing of the surgical treatment of both shoulders is debated. In the present study, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent si...

    Authors: Chen Wang, Pu Yang, Dongfang Zhang, In-Ho Jeon, Tengbo Yu, Yingze Zhang and Chao Qi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:409

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Few reports have described the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cervical lesions and osteoporosis, especially in patients with vertical subluxation (VS) that could be induced by the collapse of la...

    Authors: Yosuke Uchino, Takayuki Higashi, Naomi Kobayashi, Tetsuhiko Inoue, Yuichi Mochida and Yutaka Inaba

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:408

    Content type: Research

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  27. Less experienced clinicians sometimes make misdiagnosis of hip fractures. We developed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for hip fractures on plain X-rays using a deep learning model trained on a large dat...

    Authors: Yoichi Sato, Yasuhiko Takegami, Takamune Asamoto, Yutaro Ono, Tsugeno Hidetoshi, Ryosuke Goto, Akira Kitamura and Seiwa Honda

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:407

    Content type: Research article

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  28. A high-riding vertebral artery (HRVA) is an intraosseous anomaly that narrows the trajectory for C2 pedicle screws. The prevalence of a HRVA is high in patients who need surgery at the craniovertebral junction...

    Authors: Tomoaki Shimizu, Masao Koda, Tetsuya Abe, Yosuke Shibao, Mamoru Kono, Fumihiko Eto, Kousei Miura, Kentaro Mataki, Hiroshi Noguchi, Hiroshi Takahashi, Toru Funayama and Masashi Yamazaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:406

    Content type: Research

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  29. Pubic defects resulting from type III hemipelvectomy are commonly not reconstructed due to the need to preserve the weight-bearing axis. However, the opening of the anterior pelvic ring will inevitably lead to...

    Authors: Yuqi Zhang, Li Min, Minxun Lu, Jie Wang, Yitian Wang, Yi Luo, Yong Zhou, Hong Duan and Chongqi Tu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:405

    Content type: Research

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  30. It is important to know the biomechanical properties of an allograft. This is because when looking to do a transplant of a tendon, the tendon must have very similar biomechanical properties to the original ten...

    Authors: Denes Farago, Blanka Kozma and Rita Maria Kiss

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:404

    Content type: Research

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  31. Most unstable trochanteric fractures are treated with internal fixation and often with high complication rates. Hemiarthroplasty might be an alternative method in difficult condition, especially in unstable co...

    Authors: Tzu-Chieh Lin, Pin-Wen Wang, Chun-Teng Lin, Yu-Jun Chang, Ying-Ju Lin, Wen-Miin Liang and Jeff Chien-Fu Lin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:403

    Content type: Research

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  32. The cross-body and the modified sleeper stretch have been used to improve posterior shoulder soft tissue flexibility and to increase glenohumeral joint internal rotation (GHJ IR) in overhead athletes. However,...

    Authors: Omar Gharisia, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, Alan Eldridge, Amjad Shallan and Hatem Jaber

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:402

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Due to their multilineage potential and high proliferation rate, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) indicate a sufficient alternative in regenerative medicine. In comparison to the commonly used 2-dimensional cultur...

    Authors: Lisa Findeisen, Julia Bolte, Corina Vater, Cathleen Petzold, Mandy Quade, Lars Müller, Stuart B. Goodman and Stefan Zwingenberger

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:401

    Content type: Research

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  34. The high failure rates of metal on metal (MoM) large diameter head total hip arthroplasty (LDH THA) and hip resurfacing (HR) prevented their long-term comparisons with regards to clinical outcome. Such knowled...

    Authors: Lazaros Kostretzis, Martin Lavigne, Marc-Olivier Kiss, Maged Shahin, Janie Barry and Pascal-André Vendittoli

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:400

    Content type: Research article

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  35. For active patients with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) who would like to return to active level of sports, the current surgical gold standard is reconstruction of the ACL. Recently, there has ...

    Authors: Jelle P. van der List, Harmen D. Vermeijden, Inger N. Sierevelt, Maarten V. Rademakers, Mark L. M. Falke, Gijs T. T. Helmerhorst, Roy A. G. Hoogeslag, Wybren A. van der Wal, Arthur van Noort and Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:399

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts play important roles during the bone remodeling in the physiological and pathophysiological states. Although angiopoietin family Angiopoietin like proteins (Angptls), including Angp...

    Authors: Masayoshi Ishida, Naoyuki Kawao, Yuya Mizukami, Yoshimasa Takafuji and Hiroshi Kaji

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:398

    Content type: Research

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  37. To observe the outcome of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis (ICMVT) undergoing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for closed intra-articular distal femur fractures (DFFs) and to analyze related fac...

    Authors: Chen Chen, Ying Liu, Hengfu Wu, Jingmin Feng, Ao Li and Zhaozhong Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:397

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Convertible stem designs allow for stem retention during revision from anatomical to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. In some cases conversion is not possible for example due to excessive soft tissue tensioning....

    Authors: Luuk M. A. Theelen, Ben Mory, Sharmila Venkatesan, Anneke Spekenbrink-Spooren, Loes Janssen and Frederik O. Lambers Heerspink

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:396

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To observe the sequence of chondrocyte degeneration and matrix degradation in the superficial surface cartilage of the tibial plateau in guinea pigs with spontaneous knee osteoarthritis (OA).

    Authors: Xiao-jian Wang, Lei Wei, Yan Xue and Rong-shan Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:395

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Senile osteoporosis with age-related bone loss is diagnosed depending on radiographic changes of bone and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, radiographic alterations are usually signs of medium-l...

    Authors: Wenting Xu, Cheng Ni, Yuxuan Wang, Guoqing Zheng, Jinshan Zhang and Youjia Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:394

    Content type: Research

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  41. Muscle and bone interactions might be associated with osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Urinary pentosidine and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) might affect muscle and bone interactions. It is unclear whether t...

    Authors: Kenta Moriwaki, Hiromi Matsumoto, Chika Tanimura, Mari Osaki, Hideki Nagashima and Hiroshi Hagino

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:392

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, causing significant personal and social burden. Current research is focused on the processes of the central nervous system (particularly...

    Authors: R. Meier, C. Emch, C. Gross-Wolf, F. Pfeiffer, A. Meichtry, A. Schmid and H. Luomajoki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:391

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In current clinical practice, the most commonly used fusion cage materials are titanium (Ti) alloys. However, titanium alloys are non-degradable and may cause stress shielding. ZK60 is a bio-absorbable implant...

    Authors: Jun Sun, Qiuan Wang, Dazhao Cai, Wenxiang Gu, Yiming Ma, Yang Sun, Yangyang Wei and Feng Yuan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:390

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Joint hypermobility in athletes is associated with increased risk of knee injuries, but its role in relation to shoulder injuries has not been scrutinized. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize the evidence on ...

    Authors: Behnam Liaghat, Julie Rønne Pedersen, James J. Young, Jonas Bloch Thorlund, Birgit Juul-Kristensen and Carsten Bogh Juhl

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:389

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is increasingly more prevalent and significant number of patients require knee arthroplasty. Although knee arthroplasty is generally successful, it takes months to recover physical fu...

    Authors: Sunghye Kim, Fang-Chi Hsu, Leanne Groban, Jeff Williamson and Stephen Messier

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:388

    Content type: Research article

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  46. As the primary treatment for adhesive capsulitis, intensive and accurate home exercise is as important as physical therapy in hospitals. Augmented reality (AR)-based telerehabilitation has been implemented rec...

    Authors: Seung Mi Yeo, Ji Young Lim, Jong Geol Do, Jae-Young Lim, Jong In Lee and Ji Hye Hwang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:386

    Content type: Study protocol

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  47. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Konstantinos Mylonas, Pavlos Angelopoulos, Evdokia Billis, Elias Tsepis and Konstantinos Fousekis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:385

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:212

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