Scott CE, Howie CR, MacDonald D, Biant LC. Predicting dissatisfaction following total knee replacement: a prospective study of 1217 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(9):1253–8.
Bachmeier CJM, March LM, Cross MJ, Lapsley HM, Tribe KL, Courtenay BG, et al. A comparison of outcomes in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement surgery. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2001;9(2):137–46.
Levy O, Martinowitz U, Oran A, Tauber C, Horoszowski H. The use of fibrin tissue adhesive to reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized, multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81(11):1580–8.
Ohkoshi Y, Ohkoshi M, Nagasaki S, Ono A, Hashimoto T, Yamane S. The effect of cryotherapy on intraarticular temperature and postoperative care after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27(3):357–62.
Gibbons C, Solan M, Ricketts D, Patterson M. Cryotherapy compared with Robert Jones bandage after total knee replacement: a prospective randomized trial. Int Orthop. 2001;25(4):250–2.
Chughtai M, Sodhi N, Jawad M, Newman JM, Khlopas A, Bhave A, et al. Cryotherapy treatment after Unicompartmental and Total knee arthroplasty: a review. J Arthroplast. 2017;32(12):3822–32.
Alshryda S, Sarda P, Sukeik M, Nargol A, Blenkinsopp J, Mason JM. Tranexamic acid in total knee replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93(12):1577–85.
Wang D, Wang HY, Luo ZY, Meng WK, Pei FX, Li Q, et al. Blood-conserving efficacy of multiple doses of oral tranexamic acid associated with an enhanced-recovery programme in primary total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial. Bone Joint J. 2018;100-B(8):1025–32.
Fillingham YA, Ramkumar DB, Jevsevar DS, Yates AJ, Shores P, Mullen K, et al. The efficacy of tranexamic acid in Total knee arthroplasty: a network Meta-analysis. J Arthroplast. 2018;33(10):3090–8.e1.
Alshryda S, Mason J, Vaghela M, Sarda P, Nargol A, Maheswaran S, et al. Topical (intra-articular) tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion rates following Total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am Vol. 2013;95(21):1961–8.
Fillingham YA, Ramkumar DB, Jevsevar DS, Yates AJ, Shores P, Mullen K, et al. The safety of tranexamic acid in Total joint arthroplasty: a direct Meta-analysis. J Arthroplast. 2018;33(10):3070–82.e1.
Huang Z, Xie X, Li L, Huang Q, Ma J, Shen B, et al. Intravenous and topical tranexamic acid alone are superior to tourniquet use for primary Total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg. 2017;99(24):2053–61.
Yamada K, Imaizumi T, Uemura M, Takada N, Kim Y. Comparison between 1-hour and 24-hour drain clamping using diluted epinephrine solution after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplast. 2001;16(4):458–62.
Sundström A, Seaman H, Kieler H, Alfredsson L. The risk of venous thromboembolism associated with the use of tranexamic acid and other drugs used to treat menorrhagia: a case-control study using the general practice research database. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;116(1):91–7.
Taparia MCF, Laahy MF. Pulmonary embolism associated with tranexamic acid in severe acquired haemophilia. Eur J Haematol. 2002;68:307–9.
Tsumara N, Yoshiya S, Chin T, Shiba R, Kohso K, Doita M. A prospective comparison of clamping the drain or post-operative salvage of blood in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88(1):49–53.
Liao L, Chen Y, Tang Q, Chen Y-y, Wang W-c. Tranexamic acid plus drain-clamping can reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2018;52:334–41.
Onodera T, Majima T, Sawaguchi N, Kasahara Y, Ishigaki T, Minami A. Risk of deep venous thrombosis in drain clamping with tranexamic acid and Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate hydrate in Total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplast. 2012;27(1):105–8.
Chareancholvanich K, Siriwattanasakul P, Narkbunnam R, Pornrattanamaneewong C. Temporary clamping of drain combined with tranexamic acid reduce blood loss after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;20(13):124.
Seo J-G, Moon Y-W, Park S-H, Kim S-M, Ko K-R. The comparative efficacies of intra-articular and IV tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;21(8):1869–74.
McGrory BJ, Weber KL, Jevsevar DS, Sevarino K. Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016;24(8):e87–93.
Drinkwater CJ, Neil MJ. Optimal timing of wound drain removal following total joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplast. 1995;10(2):185–9.
Willemen D, Paul J, White SH, Crook DW. Closed suction drainage following knee arthroplasty. Effectiveness and risks. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;1(264):232–4.
Drakos A, Raoulis V, Karatzios K, Doxariotis N, Kontogeorgakos V, Malizos K, et al. Efficacy of local Administration of Tranexamic Acid for blood salvage in patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgery. J Orthop Trauma. 2016;30(8):409–14.
Virani SR, Dahapute AA, Panda I, Bava SS. Role of local infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in Peritrochanteric fracture surgery in the elderly population. Malays Orthop J. 2016;10(3):26–30.
Yozawa S, Ogawa H, Matsumoto K, Akiyama H. Periarticular injection of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and the necessity for allogeneic transfusion after Total knee arthroplasty using autologous transfusion: a retrospective observational study. J Arthroplast. 2018;33(1):86–9.
Gross JB. Estimating allowable blood loss: corrected for dilution. Anesthesiology. 1983;58(3):277–80.
Nadler SB, Hidalgo JH, Bloch T. Prediction of blood volume in normal human adults. Surgery. 1962;51(2):224–32.
Caraceni A, Cherny N, Fainsinger R, Kaasa S, Poulain P, Radbruch L, et al. Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an expert working Group of the European Association of palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;23(3):239–55.
Hjermstad MJ, Fayers PM, Haugen DF, Caraceni A, Hanks GW, Loge JH, et al. Studies comparing numerical rating scales, verbal rating scales, and visual analogue scales for assessment of pain intensity in adults: a systematic literature review. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2011;41(6):1073–93.
Holt BT, Parks NL, Engh GA, Lawrence JM. Comparison of closed-suction drainage and no drainage after primary total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics. 1997;20(12):1121–4 discussion 4-5.
Ovadia D, Luger E, Bickels J, Menachem A, Dekel S. Efficacy of closed wound drainage after total joint arthroplasty. A prospective randomized study. J Arthroplasty. 1997;12(3):317–21.
Mao Z, Yue B, Wang Y, Yan M, Dai K. A comparative, retrospective study of peri-articular and intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid for the management of postoperative blood loss after total knee arthroplasty. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17(1):438.
Pinsornsak P, Rojanavijitkul S, Chumchuen S. Peri-articular tranexamic acid injection in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:313.
Georgiadis AG, Muh SJ, Silverton CD, Weir RM, Laker MW. A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial of topical tranexamic acid in Total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplast. 2013;28(8):78–82.
Wong J, Abrishami A, El Beheiry H, Mahomed NN, Roderick Davey J, Gandhi R, et al. Topical application of tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am Vol. 2010;92(15):2503–13.
Busuttil SJ, Ploplis VA, Castellino FJ, Tang L, Eaton JW, Plow EF. A central role for plasminogen in the inflammatory response to biomaterials. J Thromb Haemostasis. 2004;2(10):1798–805.
Wang D, Xu J, Zeng W-n, Zhou K, Xie T-h, Chen Z, et al. Closed suction drainage is not associated with faster recovery after Total knee arthroplasty. Orthop Surg. 2016;8(2):226–33.
Zhou K, Wang H, Li J, Wang D, Zhou Z, Pei F. Non-drainage versus drainage in tourniquet-free knee arthroplasty: a prospective trial. ANZ J Surg. 2017;87(12):1048–52.
Quinn M, Bowe A, Galvin R, Dawson P, O'Byrne J. The use of postoperative suction drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review. Int Orthop. 2015;39(4):653–8.
Zhang Q, Liu L, Sun W, Gao F, Zhang Q, Cheng L, et al. Are closed suction drains necessary for primary total knee arthroplasty? Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(30):e11290.
Helito CP, Bonadio MB, Sobrado MF, Giglio PN, Pécora JR, Camanho GL, et al. Comparison of Floseal® and tranexamic acid for bleeding control after Total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study. Clinics. 2019;74:e1186.
Echave M, Oyaguez I, Casado MA. Use of Floseal(R), a human gelatine-thrombin matrix sealant, in surgery: a systematic review. BMC Surg. 2014;20(14):111.
Li J, Li H-B, Zhai X-C, Qin L, Jiang X-Q, Zhang Z-H. Topical use of topical fibrin sealant can reduce the need for transfusion, total blood loss and the volume of drainage in total knee and hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 1489 patients. Int J Surg. 2016;36:127–37.
Li S, Chen B, Hua Z, Shao Y, Yin H, Wang J. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical hemostatic agents in primary total knee arthroplasty. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(12):e25087.