Joergensen AC, Hestbaek L, Andersen PK, Nybo Andersen AM. Epidemiology of spinal pain in children: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Eur J Pediatr. 2019;178(5):695–706. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03326-7.
Diepenmaat AC, van der Wal MF, de Vet HC, Hirasing RA. Neck/shoulder, low back, and arm pain in relation to computer use, physical activity, stress, and depression among Dutch adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):412–6. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2766.
Myrtveit SM, Sivertsen B, Skogen JC, Frostholm L, Stormark KM, Hysing M. Adolescent neck and shoulder pain--the association with depression, physical activity, screen-based activities, and use of health care services. J Adolescent Health. 2014;55(3):366–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.016.
Stallknecht SE, Strandberg-Larsen K, Hestbaek L, Nybo AA. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Eur J Pediatr. 2017;176(6):807–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-017-2915-y.
Joergensen AC, Lucas R, Hestbaek L, Andersen P, Nybo Andersen AM. Early-life programming of pain sensation? Spinal pain in pre-adolescents with pain experience in early life. Eur J Pediatr. 2019;178(12):1903–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03475-9.
Straker LM, Coleman J, Skoss R, Maslen BA, Burgess-Limerick R, Pollock CM. A comparison of posture and muscle activity during tablet computer, desktop computer and paper use by young children. Ergonomics. 2008;51(4):540–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130701711000.
Jacobs K, Baker NA. The association between children's computer use and musculoskeletal discomfort. Work (Reading, Mass). 2002;18(3):221–6.
Gillespie RM. The physical impact of computers and electronic game use on children and adolescents, a review of current literature. Work (Reading, Mass). 2002;18(3):249–59.
Hakala PT, Saarni LA, Punamaki RL, Wallenius MA, Nygard CH, Rimpela AH. Musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use among Finnish adolescents--pain intensity and inconvenience to everyday life: a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13(1):41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-13-41.
Silva GR, Pitangui AC, Xavier MK, Correia-Junior MA, De Araujo RC. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use. J Pediatr. 2016;92(2):188–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2015.06.006.
Torsheim T, Eriksson L, Schnohr CW, Hansen F, Bjarnason T, Valimaa R. Screen-based activities and physical complaints among adolescents from the Nordic countries. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(1):324. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-324.
Keane E, Kelly C, Molcho M, Nic GS. Physical activity, screen time and the risk of subjective health complaints in school-aged children. Prev Med. 2017;96:21–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.011.
Harris C, Straker L, Pollock C, Smith A. Children, computer exposure and musculoskeletal outcomes: the development of pathway models for school and home computer-related musculoskeletal outcomes. Ergonomics. 2015;58(10):1611–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1035762.
World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: WHO; 2010. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241599979.
Heneweer H, Vanhees L, Picavet HSJ. Physical activity and low back pain: a U-shaped relation? Pain. 2009;143(1):21–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.12.033.
Aartun E, Hartvigsen J, Boyle E, Hestbaek L. No associations between objectively measured physical activity and spinal pain in 11–15-year-old Danes. Eur J Pain (London, England). 2016;20(3):447–57.
Wedderkopp N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Bo Andersen L, Froberg K, Steen HH. Back pain in children: no association with objectively measured level of physical activity. Spine. 2003;28(17):2019–24. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.BRS.0000083238.78155.31.
Wedderkopp N, Kjaer P, Hestbaek L, Korsholm L, Leboeuf-Yde C. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence. Spine J. 2009;9(2):134–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2008.02.003.
Franz C, Møller NC, Korsholm L, Jespersen E, Hebert JJ, Wedderkopp N. Physical activity is prospectively associated with spinal pain in children (CHAMPS Study-DK). Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):11598.
Franz C, Jespersen E, Rexen CT, Leboeuf-Yde C, Wedderkopp N. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: a 2.5-year prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(8):911–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12519.
Pedisic Z, Dumuid D, Olds TS. Intergrating sleep, sedentary beahviour, and physical activity research in the emerging field of time-use epidemiology: Defintions, concepts, statistical methods, theoretical framework, and future directions. Kinesiology (Zagreb, Croatia). 2017;49(2):252.
Olsen J, Meder I. Better health for mother and child - the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), its structure, history and aims. Norsk Epidemiologi. 2014;24(1–2):37–8.
Jensen VM, Rasmussen AW. Danish education registers. Scand J Public Health. 2011;39(7 Suppl):91–4. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494810394715.
Lauridsen HH, Hestbaek L. Development of the young spine questionnaire. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14(1):185. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-185.
Hicks CL, von Baeyer CL, Spafford PA, van Korlaar I, Goodenough B. The faces pain scale-revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain. 2001;93(2):173–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00314-1.
Greenland S, Pearl J, Robins JM. Causal diagrams for epidemiologic research. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass). 1999;10(1):37–48.
Bliddal M, Broe A, Pottegard A, Olsen J, Langhoff-Roos J. The Danish medical birth register. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018;33(1):27–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0356-1.
ISCED. International standard classification of education ISCED 2011. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics; 2012.
Baadsgaard M, Quitzau J. Danish registers on personal income and transfer payments. Scand J Public Health. 2011;39(7 Suppl):103–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494811405098.
OECD. OECD Project on Income Distribution and Poverty. What are the equivalence Scales? : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [cited 2018 19 September ]. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/eco/growth/OECD-Note-EquivalenceScales.pdf.
Vach W. Regression models as a tool in medical statistics. Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall/CRC; 2013.
Jacobsen T, Nohr E, Frydenberg M. Selection by socioeconomic factors into the Danish National Birth Cohort. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25(5):349–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-010-9448-2.
Molenberghs G, Fitzmaurice G, Kenward M, Tsiatis A, Verbeke G. A Review of Handbook of Missing Data Methodology. J Educ Behav Stat. 2015;41(5):554–6.
Nigg CR, Wunsch K, Nigg C, Niessner C, Jekauc D, Schmidt SCE, et al. Are physical activity, screen time, and mental health related during childhood, preadolescence, and adolescence? 11-year results from the German Motorik-Modul longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol. 2021;190(2):220–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa192.
Pearson N, Braithwaite RE, Biddle SJH, van Sluijs EMF, Atkin AJ. Associations between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Obesity Rev. 2014;15(8):666–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12188.
Aartun E, Boyle E, Hartvigsen J, Ferreira PH, Maher CG, Ferreira ML, et al. The most physically active Danish adolescents are at increased risk for developing spinal pain: a two-year prospective cohort study. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2016;2(1):e000097. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000097.
Mitchell JA, Rodriguez D, Schmitz KH, Audrain-Mcgovern J. Greater screen time is associated with adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study of the BMI distribution from Ages 14 to 18. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2013;21(3):572.
Xu H, Wen LM, Hardy LL, Rissel C. Associations of outdoor play and screen time with nocturnal sleep duration and pattern among young children. Acta Paediatr. 2016;105(3):297–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13285.
Ekelund U, Brage S, Froberg K, Harro M, Anderssen SA, Sardinha LB, et al. TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: the European youth heart study (TV viewing, activity, and metabolic risk). PLoS Med. 2006;3(12):e488. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030488.
Smith MT, Haythornthwaite JA. How do sleep disturbance and chronic pain inter-relate? Insights from the longitudinal and cognitive-behavioral clinical trials literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8(2):119–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1087-0792(03)00044-3.
Kundermann B, Krieg J-C, Schreiber W, Lautenbacher S. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain. Pain Res Manag. 2004;9(1):25–32. https://doi.org/10.1155/2004/949187.
Auvinen JP, Tammelin TH, Taimela SP, Zitting PJ, Jarvelin MR, Taanila AM, et al. Is insufficient quantity and quality of sleep a risk factor for neck, shoulder and low back pain? A longitudinal study among adolescents. Eur Spine J. 2010;19(4):641–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-009-1215-2.
Harrison L, Wilson S, Munafò M. Exploring the associations between sleep problems and chronic musculoskeletal pain in adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Pain Res Manage. 2014;19(5):E139–45. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/615203.
Ben Ayed H, Yaich S, Trigui M, Hmida MB, Jemaa MB, Ammar A, et al. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcomes of Neck, Shoulders and Low-Back Pain in Secondary-School Children. J Res Health Sci. 2019;19(1):e00440.
Bobakova D, Hamrik Z, Badura P, Sigmundova D, Nalecz H, Kalman M. Test-retest reliability of selected physical activity and sedentary behaviour HBSC items in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Int J Public Health. 2015;60(1):59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0628-9.
Liu Y, Wang M, Tynjala J, Lv Y, Villberg J, Zhang Z, et al. Test-retest reliability of selected items of health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) survey questionnaire in Beijing, China. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;10(1):73. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-73.
Vilkår B, TDC. Børn har brug for hjælp til gode mobilvaner (Children need help to improve their mobile phone habits): Børns Vilkår; 2014.
Seaman SR, White IR. Review of inverse probability weighting for dealing with missing data. Stat Methods Med Res. 2013;22(3):278–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280210395740.
Pizzi C, De Stavola B, Merletti F, Bellocco R, dos Santos SI, Pearce N, et al. Sample selection and validity of exposure-disease association estimates in cohort studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(5):407–11. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.107185.