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Table 2 Relative risk ratio (RRR) of spinal pain according to screen time and physical activity among the 45,555 pre-adolescents included in the study population (The Danish National Birth Cohort, born 1996–2003)

From: Spinal pain in pre-adolescence and the relation with screen time and physical activity behavior

   Model 1ab Model 2bc Model 3bd
No. of cases
Moderate/Severe
Moderate pain
RRR (95% CI)
Severe pain
RRR (95% CI)
Moderate pain
RRR (95% CI)
Severe pain
RRR (95% CI)
Moderate pain
RRR (95% CI)
Severe pain
RRR (95% CI)
Screen time, girls
  < 2 h/day 1734/728 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2 to < 4 h/day 3651/1584 1.25 (1.17–1.34) 1.30 (1.18–1.43) 1.24 (1.16–1.33) 1.28 (1.16–1.41) 1.23 (1.15–1.32) 1.24 (1.13–1.37)
 4 to < 6 h/day 1372/631 1.49 (1.37–1.63) 1.64 (1.45–1.84) 1.47 (1.34–1.61) 1.59 (1.41–1.80) 1.43 (1.31–1.57) 1.49 (1.32–1.68)
  ≥ 6 h/day 493/332 1.80 (1.58–2.05) 2.89 (2.48–3.38) 1.76 (1.54–2.01) 2.77 (2.37–3.24) 1.69 (1.48–1.93) 2.49 (2.13–2.92)
Screen time, boys
  < 2 h/day 973/283 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2 to < 4 h/day 2856/922 1.11 (1.02–1.22) 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 1.11 (1.01–1.21) 1.23 (1.06–1.41) 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 1.21 (1.05–1.39)
 4 to < 6 h/day 1652/553 1.31 (1.19–1.44) 1.51 (1.29–1.76) 1.29 (1.17–1.41) 1.47 (1.26–1.71) 1.26 (1.15–1.39) 1.41 (1.20–1.64)
  ≥ 6 h/day 761/355 1.38 (1.23–1.55) 2.21 (1.87–2.62) 1.34 (1.19–1.50) 2.11 (1.78–2.51) 1.30 (1.16–1.46) 1.95 (1.65–2.32)
Physical activity behavior
 Inactive 1627/769 1.25 (1.16–1.33) 1.56 (1.42–1.71) 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 1.28 (1.16–1.41) 1.12 (1.04–1.20) 1.22 (1.10–1.34)
 Lightly active 6225/2474 1.14 (1.09–1.19) 1.20 (1.12–1.28) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) 1.12 (1.05–1.20) 1.09 (1.04–1.14) 1.09 (1.02–1.16)
 Moderately active 5066/1914 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Vigorously active 574/231 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 1.04 (0.90–1.21) 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 1.09 (0.94–1.26) 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 1.08 (0.93–1.26)
  1. a Crude model (Screen time was analyzed as the interaction between screen time and child’s sex)
  2. b Reference categories: For explanatory variables; less than 2 h of daily screen time and being physically active, and for outcome variables; not having reported moderate or severe spinal pain in DNBC-11 (No pain)
  3. c Simultaneously modelled for the interaction between screen time and child’s sex, and physical activity behavior, but without further adjustments
  4. d Adjusted for child’s age, parity, family type, parental education, household income and simultaneously modelled for the interaction between screen time and child’s sex, and physical activity behavior