Murray CJ, Atkinson C, Bhalla K, Birbeck G, Burstein R, Chou D, et al. The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Jama. 2013;310:591–608.
Andersson GB. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet. 1999;354:581–5.
Danneels LA, Cools AM, Vanderstraeten GG, Cambier DC, Witvrouw EE, Bourgois J, et al. The effects of three different training modalities on the cross-sectional area of the paravertebral muscles. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2001;11:335–41 https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.35.3.186.
Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American pain society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:478–91 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00006.
Chou R, Huffman LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American pain society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:492–504 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00007.
Rundell SD, Sherman KJ, Heagerty PJ, Mock CN, Jarvik JG. The clinical course of pain and function in older adults with a new primary care visit for back pain. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63:524–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13241.
Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Tomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:776–85 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-142-9-200505030-00014.
Slade SC, Dionne CE, Underwood M, Buchbinder R, Beck B, Bennell K, et al. Consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT): modified Delphi study. Phys Ther. 2016;96:1514–24.
Slade SC, Dionne CE, Underwood M, Buchbinder R. Consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT): explanation and elaboration statement. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1428–37.
Parkkola R, Rytokoski U, Kormano M. Magnetic resonance imaging of the discs and trunk muscles in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy control subjects. Spine (Phila pa 1976), vol. 18; 1993. p. 830–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199306000-00004.
Mattila M, Hurme M, Alaranta H, Paljarvi L, Kalimo H, Falck B, et al. The multifidus muscle in patients with lumbar disc herniation. A histochemical and morphometric analysis of intraoperative biopsies. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986;11:732–8 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198609000-00013.
Alaranta H, Tallroth K, Soukka A, Heliovaara M. Fat content of lumbar extensor muscles and low back disability: a radiographic and clinical comparison. J Spinal Disord. 1993;6:137–40.
Kjaer P, Bendix T, Sorensen JS, Korsholm L, Leboeuf-Yde C. Are MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain. BMC Med. 2007;5(2).
Jeon K, Kim T, Lee SH. Effects of muscle extension strength exercise on trunk muscle strength and stability of patients with lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28:1418–21. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.28.1418.
Yaprak Y. The effects of back extension training on back muscle strength and spinal range of motion in young females. Biol Sport. 2013;30:201–6. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1047500.
Danneels L, Vanderstraeten G, Cambier D, Witvrouw E, Bourgois J, Dankaerts W, et al. Effects of three different training modalities on the cross sectional area of the lumbar multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain. Br J Sport Med. 2001;35:186–91. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.35.3.186.
Willemink MJ, van Es HW, Helmhout PH, Diederik AL, Kelder JC, van Heesewijk JP. The effects of dynamic isolated lumbar extensor training on lumbar multifidus functional cross-sectional area and functional status of patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E1651–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e318274fb2f.
Mooney V, Gulick J, Perlman M, Levy D, Pozos R, Leggett S, et al. Relationships between myoelectric activity, strength, and MRI of lumbar extensor muscles in back pain patients and normal subjects. J Spinal Disord. 1997;10:348–56.
Shahtahmassebi B, Hebert JJ, Stomski NJ, Hecimovich M, Fairchild TJ. The effect of exercise training on lower trunk muscle morphology. Sport Med. 2014;44:1439–58.
Kliziene I, Sipaviciene S, Klizas S, Imbrasiene D. Effects of core stability exercises on multifidus muscles in healthy women and women with chronic low-back pain. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2015;28:841–7. https://doi.org/10.3233/bmr-150596.
Woodham M, Woodham AW, Skeate JW, Freeman MD. Long-term lumbar Multifidus muscle atrophy changes documented with magnetic resonance imaging: a case series. J Radiol Case Rep. 2014;8:27–34.
O’leary S, Jull G, Van Wyk L, Pedler A, Elliott J. Morphological changes in the cervical muscles of women with chronic whiplash can be modified with exercise-a pilot study. Muscle Nerve. 2015;52:772–9.
Fisher J, Bruce-Low S, Smith D. A randomized trial to consider the effect of Romanian deadlift exercise on the development of lumbar extension strength. Phys Ther Sport. 2013;14(3):139–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2012.04.001.
Pollock ML, Leggett SH, Graves JE, Jones A, Fulton M, Cirulli J. Effect of resistance training on lumbar extension strength. Am J Sports Med. 1989;17:624–9.
Nelson BW, O’Reilly E, Miller M, Hogan M, Wegner JA, Kelly C. The clinical effects of intensive, specific exercise on chronic low back pain: a controlled study of 895 consecutive patients with 1-year follow up. Orthopedics. 1995;18:971–81.
Raiszadeh K. Take Back control - a Surgeon’s guide to healing your spine without medications or surgery: OptiFit Publishers; 2016.
Rosset A, Spadola L, Ratib O. OsiriX: an open-source software for navigating in multidimensional DICOM images. J Digit Imaging. 2004;17:205–16.
Berry DB, Padwal J, Johnson S, Parra CL, Ward SR, Shahidi B. Methodological considerations in region of interest definitions for paraspinal muscles in axial MRIs of the lumbar spine. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018;19:135.
Heemskerk AM, Sinha TK, Wilson KJ, Ding Z, Damon BM. Repeatability of DTI-based skeletal muscle fiber tracking. NMR Biomed. 2010;23:294–303.
Shahidi B, Parra CL, Berry DB, Hubbard JC, Gombatto S, Zlomislic V, et al. Contribution of lumbar spine pathology and age to Paraspinal muscle size and fatty infiltration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017;42:616–23.
McCormack HM, Horne DJ, Sheather S. Clinical applications of visual analogue scales: a critical review. Psychol Med. 1988;18:1007–19.
Ogon M, Krismer M, Sollner W, Kantner-Rumplmair W, Lampe A. Chronic low back pain measurement with visual analogue scales in different settings. Pain. 1996;64:425–8.
Olaogun MOB, Adedoyin RA, Ikem IC, Anifaloba OR. Reliability of rating low back pain with a visual analogue scale and a semantic differential scale. Physiother Theory Pract. 2004;20:135–42 https://doi.org/10.1080/09593980490453048.
Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB. The Oswestry disability index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2000;25:2940–2952; discussion 2952.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Lowe B. An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ4. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:613–21. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psy.50.6.613.
Lowe B, Wahl I, Rose M, Spitzer C, Glaesmer H, Wingenfeld K, et al. A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the patient health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ4) in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2010;122:86–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.019.
Bombardier C, Hayden J, Beaton DE. Minimal clinically important difference. Low back pain: outcome measures. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:431–8.
Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, Koes BW. Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005:Cd000335. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000335.pub2.
Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Skinner JS, Hanscom B, Tosteson ANA, et al. Surgical vs nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: the spine patient outcomes research trial (SPORT) observational cohort. Jama. 2006;296:2451–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.20.2451.
Welch N, Moran K, Antony J, Richter C, Marshall B, Coyle J, et al. The effects of a free-weight-based resistance training intervention on pain, squat biomechanics and MRI-defined lumbar fat infiltration and functional cross-sectional area in those with chronic low back. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2015;1:e000050. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000050.
Choi HK, Gwon H, Kim SR, Park CS, Cho BJ. Effects of active rehabilitation therapy on muscular back strength and subjective pain degree in chronic lower back pain patients. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016:2700–2. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.28.2700.
Crawford RJ, Cornwall J, Abbott R, Elliott JM. Manually defining regions of interest when quantifying paravertebral muscles fatty infiltration from axial magnetic resonance imaging: a proposed method for the lumbar spine with anatomical cross-reference. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:25.
Dixon WT. Simple proton spectroscopic imaging. Radiology. 1984;153:189–94. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.153.1.6089263.
Reeder SB, Pineda AR, Wen Z, Shimakawa A, Yu H, Brittain JH, et al. Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL): application with fast spin-echo imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2005;54:636–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.20624.
Froeling M, Oudeman J, Strijkers GJ, Maas M, Drost MR, Nicolay K, et al. Muscle changes detected with diffusion-tensor imaging after long-distance running. Radiology. 2015;274:548–62. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.14140702.
Cermak NM, Noseworthy MD, Bourgeois JM, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Diffusion tensor MRI to assess skeletal muscle disruption following eccentric exercise. Muscle Nerve. 2012;46:42–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.23276.
Graves JE, Pollock ML, Foster D, Leggett SH, Carpenter DM, Vuoso R, et al. Effect of training frequency and specificity on isometric lumbar extension strength. Spine (Phila pa 1976), vol. 15; 1990. p. 504–9.
Starkey DB, Pollock ML, Ishida Y, Welsch MA, Brechue WF, Graves JE, et al. Effect of resistance training volume on strength and muscle thickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1311–20.
Swain DP, editor. American College of Sports Medicine’s resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 7th ed. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.