Dey P, Callaghan M, Cook N, Sephton R, Sutton C, Hough E, et al. A questionnaire to identify patellofemoral pain in the community: an exploration of measurement properties. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:237. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-016-1097-5.
Urwin M, Symmons D, Allison T, Brammah T, Busby H, Roxby M, et al. Estimating the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: the comparative prevalence of symptoms at diVerent anatomical sites, and the relation to social deprivation. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:649–55.
Jordan KP, Kadam UT, Hayward R, Porcheret M, Young C, Croft P, et al. Annual consultation prevalence of regional musculoskeletal problems in primary care: an observational study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:144. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-11-144.
Smith BE, Selfe J, Thacker D, Hendrick P, Bateman M, Moffatt F, et al. Incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190892.
Collins NJ, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Crossley KM, van Linschoten RL, Vicenzino B, van Middelkoop M, et al. Prognostic factors for patellofemoral pain: a multicentre observational analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:227–33. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091696.
Stathopulu E, Baildam E. Anterior knee pain: a long-term follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42:380–2.
Doménech J, Sanchis-Alfonso V, Espejo BBB, Domenech J, Sanchis-Alfonso V, Espejo BBB. Changes in catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are predictive of changes in disability and pain after treatment in patients with anterior knee pain. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:2295–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-2968-7.
Clijsen R, Fuchs J, Taeymans J. Effectiveness of exercise therapy in treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Phys Ther. 2014;94:1697–708. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20130310.
Barton CJ, Lack S, Hemmings S, Tufail S, Morrissey D. The “best practice guide to conservative Management of Patellofemoral Pain”: incorporating level 1 evidence with expert clinical reasoning. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:923–34. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093637.
van der Heijden RA, Lankhorst NE, van Linschoten R, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, van Middelkoop M. Exercise for treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD010387. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010387.pub2.
Doménech J, Sanchis-Alfonso V, López L, Espejo BB, Domenech J, Sanchis-Alfonso V, et al. Influence of kinesiophobia and catastrophizing on pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients. Knee Surgery, Sport Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21:1562–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2238-5.
Piva SR, Fitzgerald GK, Wisniewski S, Delitto A. Predictors of pain and function outcome after rehabilitation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:604–12. https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-0372.
Piva SR, Fitzgerald GK, Irrgang JJ, Fritz JM, Wisniewski S, McGinty GT, et al. Associates of Physical Function and Pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:285–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.08.214.
Smith BE, Moffatt F, Hendrick P, Bateman M, Rathleff MS, Selfe J, et al. The experience of living with patellofemoral pain—loss, confusion and fear-avoidance: a UK qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e018624. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018624.
Ossipov MH, Dussor GO, Porreca F. Central modulation of pain. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3779.
Quartana PJ, Campbell CM, Edwards RR. Pain catastrophizing: a critical review. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:745–58. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.09.34.
Moseley GL, Arntz A. The context of a noxious stimulus affects the pain it evokes. Pain. 2007;133:64–71.
Harvie DS, Broecker M, Smith RT, Meulders A, Madden VJ, Moseley GL. Bogus visual feedback alters onset of movement-evoked pain in people with neck pain. Psychol Sci. 2015:0956797614563339.
Lobanov OV, Zeidan F, McHaffie JG, Kraft RA, Coghill RC. From cue to meaning: brain mechanisms supporting the construction of expectations of pain. Pain. 2014;155:129–36.
Chou R, Shekelle P. Will this patient develop persistent disabling low back pain? JAMA. 2010;303:1295–302. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.344.
Moseley GL. Reconceptualising pain according to modern pain science. Phys Ther Rev. 2007;12:169–78. https://doi.org/10.1179/108331907X223010.
Miles CL, Pincus T, Carnes D, Homer KE, Taylor SJC, Bremner SA, et al. Can we identify how programmes aimed at promoting self-management in musculoskeletal pain work and who benefits? A systematic review of sub-group analysis within RCTs. Eur J Pain. 2011;15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.01.016.
Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Effects on neovascularisation behind the good results with eccentric training in chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinosis? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004;12:465–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-004-0494-8.
Littlewood C, Bateman M, Brown K, Bury J, Mawson S, May S, et al. A self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial (the SELF study). Clin Rehabil. 2016;30:686–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215515593784.
Bernhardsson S, Klintberg IH, Wendt GK. Evaluation of an exercise concept focusing on eccentric strength training of the rotator cuff for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25:69–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215510376005.
Holmgren T, Bjornsson Hallgren H, Oberg B, Adolfsson L, Johansson K, Björnsson Hallgren H, et al. Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study. BMJ. 2012;344:e787. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e787.
Long A, Donelson R, Fung T. Does it matter which exercise? A randomized control trial of exercise for low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:2593–602.
Cook C, Hegedus EJ, Ramey K. Physical therapy exercise intervention based on classification using the patient response method: a systematic review of the literature. J Man Manip Ther. 2005;13:152–62. https://doi.org/10.1179/106698105790824950.
Rathleff MS, Molgaard CM, Fredberg U, Kaalund S, Andersen KB, Jensen TT, et al. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:e292–300. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12313.
Smith BE, Hendrick P, Bateman M, Holden S, Littlewood C, Smith TO, et al. Musculoskeletal pain and exercise - challenging existing paradigms and introducing new. Br J Sports Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098983.
Smith BE, Hendrick P, Smith TO, Bateman M, Moffatt F, Rathleff MS, et al. Should exercises be painful in the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:1679–87. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097383.
Osteras B, Osteras HH, Torstensen TA, Vasseljen O, Østerås B, Østerås H, et al. Dose-response effects of medical exercise therapy in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Physiotherapy. 2013;99:126–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2012.05.009.
Rathleff MS, Roos EM, Olesen JL, Rasmussen S. Exercise during school hours when added to patient education improves outcome for 2 years in adolescent patellofemoral pain: a cluster randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:406–12. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093929.
Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMC Med. 2010;8:18.
Hoffmann TC, Glasziou PP, Boutron I, Milne R, Perera R, Moher D, et al. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. Bmj. 2014;348:g1687.
Smith BE, Hendrick P, Bateman M, Moffatt F, Rathleff MS, Selfe J, et al. Study protocol: a mixed methods feasibility study for a loaded self-managed exercise programme for patellofemoral pain. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2017;4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-017-0167-2.
Crossley KM, Stefanik JJ, Selfe J, Collins NJ, Davis IS, Powers CM, et al. 2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 1: Terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient-reported outcome m. Br J Sports Med 2016;50:839–843.
Julious SA. Sample size of 12 per group rule of thumb for a pilot study. Pharm Stat J Appl Stat Pharm Ind. 2005;4:287–91.
Sim J, Lewis M. The size of a pilot study for a clinical trial should be calculated in relation to considerations of precision and efficiency. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012;65:301–8.
Arain M, Campbell MJ, Cooper CL, Lancaster GA. What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;10:67. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-67.
Smith BE, Littlewood C, May S. An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;15:416. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-15-416.
Loudon JK, Wiesner D, Goist-Foley HL, Asjes C, Loudon KL. Intrarater reliability of functional performance tests for subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Athl Train. 2002;37:256–61.
Littlewood C, Ashton J, Mawson S, May S, Walters S. A mixed methods study to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a self-managed exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy for chronic rotator cuff disorders: protocol for the SELF study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:62. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-13-62.
Littlewood C. Contractile dysfunction of the shoulder (rotator cuff tendinopathy): an overview. J Man Manip Ther. 2012;20:209–13. https://doi.org/10.1179/2042618612Y.0000000005.
McKenzie R, May S. The human extremities: Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy. Waikanee. New Zealand: Spinal Publications; 2000.
McLean SM, Burton M, Bradley L, Littlewood C. Interventions for enhancing adherence with physiotherapy: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2010;15:514–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2010.05.012.
Littlewood C, Malliaras P, Mawson S, May S, Walters S. Development of a self-managed loaded exercise programme for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Physiother (United Kingdom). 2013;99:358–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2012.12.002.
Hoffman AJ. Enhancing self-efficacy for optimized patient outcomes through the theory of symptom self-management. Cancer Nurs. 2013;36:E16–26. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e31824a730a.
Nijs J, Lluch Girbés E, Lundberg M, Malfliet A, Sterling M. Exercise therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain: innovation by altering pain memories. Man Ther. 2015;20:216–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2014.07.004.
Smith BE, Hendrick P, Bateman M, Moffatt F, Rathleff MS, Selfe J, et al. Current management strategies for patellofemoral pain: an online survey of 99 practising UK physiotherapists. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1539-8.
van Linschoten R, van Middelkoop M, Berger MY, Heintjes EM, Verhaar JAN, Willemsen SP, et al. Supervised exercise therapy versus usual care for patellofemoral pain syndrome: an open label randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;339:b4074.
Rathleff MS, Roos EM, Olesen JL, Rasmussen S. Early intervention for adolescents with patellofemoral pain syndrome--a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-13-9.
Price DD, McGrath PA, Rafii A, Buckingham B. The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain. Pain. 1983;17:45–56.
Kori S, Miller R, Odd D. Kinesiophobia: a new view of chronic pain behaviour. Pain Manag. 1990;3:35–43.
Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess. 1995;7:524–32. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2064.
Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M. Generalized self-efficacy scale. Meas Heal Psychol A User’s Portfolio Causal Control Beliefs. 1995;1:35–7.
Devlin NJ, Krabbe PFM. The development of new research methods for the valuation of EQ-5D-5L. Eur J Health Econ. 2013;14:1.
Lancaster GA, Dodd S, Williamson PR. Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice. J Eval Clin Pract. 2004;10:307–12.
Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gøtzsche PC, Devereaux PJ, et al. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Int J Surg. 2012;10:28–55.
Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3:77–101.
Uzawa H, Davis S. Outcome measures for adherence to home exercises among patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018;30:649–53.
Bollen JC, Dean SG, Siegert RJ, Howe TE, Goodwin VA. A systematic review of measures of self-reported adherence to unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercise programmes, and their psychometric properties. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005044.
Collins N, Crossley K, Beller E, Darnell R, McPoil T, Vicenzino B. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial (reprinted from BMJ, vol 337, pg a1735, 2008). Br J Sports Med. 2009;43:169–U30.
Karanicolas PJ, Farrokhyar F, Bhandari M. Blinding: who, what, when, why, how? Can J Surg. 2010;53:345.
Brown J. Physiotherapists’ knowledge of patello-femoral pain syndrome. Br J Ther Rehabil. 2000;7:346–54. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjtr.2000.7.8.13861.
Furlan AD, Pennick V, Bombardier C, van Tulder M, Editorial Board, Cochrane Back Review Group. 2009 updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Back review group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009;34:1929–1941. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181b1c99f.
van Tulder MW, Suttorp M, Morton S, Bouter LM, Shekelle P. Empirical evidence of an association between internal validity and effect size in randomized controlled trials of low-back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:1685–92.
Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Mitchie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ. 2008;337:979–83. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1655.
Selfe J, Janssen J, Callaghan M, Witvrouw E, Sutton C, Richards J, et al. Are there three main subgroups within the patellofemoral pain population? A detailed characterisation study of 127 patients to help develop targeted intervention (TIPPs). Br J Sport Med. 2016;50:873–80.
Drew BT, Conaghan PG, Smith TO, Selfe J, Redmond AC. The effect of targeted treatment on people with patellofemoral pain: a pragmatic, randomised controlled feasibility study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:338.