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  1. It is important to know the biomechanical properties of an allograft. This is because when looking to do a transplant of a tendon, the tendon must have very similar biomechanical properties to the original ten...

    Authors: Denes Farago, Blanka Kozma and Rita Maria Kiss

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:404

    Content type: Research

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  2. Most unstable trochanteric fractures are treated with internal fixation and often with high complication rates. Hemiarthroplasty might be an alternative method in difficult condition, especially in unstable co...

    Authors: Tzu-Chieh Lin, Pin-Wen Wang, Chun-Teng Lin, Yu-Jun Chang, Ying-Ju Lin, Wen-Miin Liang and Jeff Chien-Fu Lin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:403

    Content type: Research

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  3. The cross-body and the modified sleeper stretch have been used to improve posterior shoulder soft tissue flexibility and to increase glenohumeral joint internal rotation (GHJ IR) in overhead athletes. However,...

    Authors: Omar Gharisia, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, Alan Eldridge, Amjad Shallan and Hatem Jaber

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:402

    Content type: Research article

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  4. For active patients with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) who would like to return to active level of sports, the current surgical gold standard is reconstruction of the ACL. Recently, there has ...

    Authors: Jelle P. van der List, Harmen D. Vermeijden, Inger N. Sierevelt, Maarten V. Rademakers, Mark L. M. Falke, Gijs T. T. Helmerhorst, Roy A. G. Hoogeslag, Wybren A. van der Wal, Arthur van Noort and Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:399

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts play important roles during the bone remodeling in the physiological and pathophysiological states. Although angiopoietin family Angiopoietin like proteins (Angptls), including Angp...

    Authors: Masayoshi Ishida, Naoyuki Kawao, Yuya Mizukami, Yoshimasa Takafuji and Hiroshi Kaji

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:398

    Content type: Research

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  6. To observe the outcome of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis (ICMVT) undergoing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for closed intra-articular distal femur fractures (DFFs) and to analyze related fac...

    Authors: Chen Chen, Ying Liu, Hengfu Wu, Jingmin Feng, Ao Li and Zhaozhong Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:397

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Convertible stem designs allow for stem retention during revision from anatomical to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. In some cases conversion is not possible for example due to excessive soft tissue tensioning....

    Authors: Luuk M. A. Theelen, Ben Mory, Sharmila Venkatesan, Anneke Spekenbrink-Spooren, Loes Janssen and Frederik O. Lambers Heerspink

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:396

    Content type: Research article

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  8. To observe the sequence of chondrocyte degeneration and matrix degradation in the superficial surface cartilage of the tibial plateau in guinea pigs with spontaneous knee osteoarthritis (OA).

    Authors: Xiao-jian Wang, Lei Wei, Yan Xue and Rong-shan Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:395

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Senile osteoporosis with age-related bone loss is diagnosed depending on radiographic changes of bone and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, radiographic alterations are usually signs of medium-l...

    Authors: Wenting Xu, Cheng Ni, Yuxuan Wang, Guoqing Zheng, Jinshan Zhang and Youjia Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:394

    Content type: Research

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  10. Muscle and bone interactions might be associated with osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Urinary pentosidine and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) might affect muscle and bone interactions. It is unclear whether t...

    Authors: Kenta Moriwaki, Hiromi Matsumoto, Chika Tanimura, Mari Osaki, Hideki Nagashima and Hiroshi Hagino

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:392

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, causing significant personal and social burden. Current research is focused on the processes of the central nervous system (particularly...

    Authors: R. Meier, C. Emch, C. Gross-Wolf, F. Pfeiffer, A. Meichtry, A. Schmid and H. Luomajoki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:391

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In current clinical practice, the most commonly used fusion cage materials are titanium (Ti) alloys. However, titanium alloys are non-degradable and may cause stress shielding. ZK60 is a bio-absorbable implant...

    Authors: Jun Sun, Qiuan Wang, Dazhao Cai, Wenxiang Gu, Yiming Ma, Yang Sun, Yangyang Wei and Feng Yuan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:390

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Joint hypermobility in athletes is associated with increased risk of knee injuries, but its role in relation to shoulder injuries has not been scrutinized. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize the evidence on ...

    Authors: Behnam Liaghat, Julie Rønne Pedersen, James J. Young, Jonas Bloch Thorlund, Birgit Juul-Kristensen and Carsten Bogh Juhl

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:389

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is increasingly more prevalent and significant number of patients require knee arthroplasty. Although knee arthroplasty is generally successful, it takes months to recover physical fu...

    Authors: Sunghye Kim, Fang-Chi Hsu, Leanne Groban, Jeff Williamson and Stephen Messier

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:388

    Content type: Research article

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  15. As the primary treatment for adhesive capsulitis, intensive and accurate home exercise is as important as physical therapy in hospitals. Augmented reality (AR)-based telerehabilitation has been implemented rec...

    Authors: Seung Mi Yeo, Ji Young Lim, Jong Geol Do, Jae-Young Lim, Jong In Lee and Ji Hye Hwang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:386

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Konstantinos Mylonas, Pavlos Angelopoulos, Evdokia Billis, Elias Tsepis and Konstantinos Fousekis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:385

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:212

  17. Failed treatment of subtrochanteric fractures commonly leads to pain, limping, and poor limb function. Cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) could serve as an efficient salvage procedure in such cases. This ...

    Authors: Sheng-Yu Jin, Jing-Yao Jin, Min-Gwang Kim, Woo-Jong Kim, Taek-Rim Yoon and Kyung-Soon Park

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:384

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) after knee arthroscopy is extremely rare. If the embolism is not treated promptly, the patient may die. Bilateral pulmonary embolism with associated pulmonary infarct withou...

    Authors: Yuan Li, You-Xia Chen, Xiang-Tian Deng, Shun-cheng Yang, Zhi-Yuan Su, Yu-Nong Ao, Peng Zhou, Fu-Yuan Deng, Zhong Li and Jun-Cai Liu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:383

    Content type: Case report

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  19. The patient self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASESp) is one of the most validated and reliable assessment tools. This study aimed to establi...

    Authors: Tung-Hee Albert Tie, Chih-Kai Hong, Illich Chua, Fa-Chuan Kuan, Wei-Ren Su and Kai-Lan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:382

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare, primary, benign bone tumor that commonly affects men aged 15–20 years. It is usually detected in the epiphysis of the long bones, such as the proximal femur, humerus, and tibia....

    Authors: Jianping Zheng, Ningkui Niu, Jiandang Shi, Xu Zhang, Xi Zhu, Jiali Wang and Changhao Liu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:381

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  21. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to manage musculoskeletal conditions among physiotherapists appears suboptimal. Osteoarthritis is one of the most disabling conditions worldwide and severa...

    Authors: Simone Battista, Stefano Salvioli, Serena Millotti, Marco Testa and Andrea Dell’Isola

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:380

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Theaim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a modified intrafocal pinningtechnique with three-dimensional (3D) planning to facilitate volar plating in dorsally comminuted intra-articular distal radius f...

    Authors: Xue-yang Gui, Hong-fei Shi, Jin Xiong, Yi-xin Chen, Jun-fei Wang, Jie Huang, Xu-sheng Qiu and Yin-he Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:379

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. While supraspinatus atrophy can be described according to the system of Zanetti or Thomazeau there is still a lack of characterization of isolated subscapularis muscle atrophy. The aim of this study was to des...

    Authors: Gernot Seppel, Andreas Voss, Daniel J. H. Henderson, Simone Waldt, Bernhard Haller, Philipp Forkel, Sven Reuter, Boris M. Holzapfel, Johannes E. Plath and Andreas B. Imhoff

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:378

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are commonly observed in elderly people and can be treated by conservatively with minimal risk of complications in most cases. However, utilization of direct...

    Authors: Chikako Ishii, Miki Komatsu, Kota Suda, Masahiko Takahata, Satoko Matsumoto Harmon, Masahiro Ota, Takamasa Watanabe, Mitsuru Asukai, Norimasa Iwasaki and Akio Minami

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:377

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is a rare benign sclerosing bone dysplasia and is often incidentally found on plain radiography. OPK generally does not require treatment. Nevertheless, osteonecrosis or degenerative join...

    Authors: Yao-Yuan Chang and Wei-Hsin Lin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:376

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. The annual number of hip arthroplasties is increasing combined with the aging population worldwide. In accordance with the increasing number of primary hip arthroplasties, the number of revision total hip arth...

    Authors: Jung-Wee Park, Seok-Hyung Won, Sun-Young Moon, Young-Kyun Lee, Yong-Chan Ha and Kyung-Hoi Koo

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:375

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. The calcaneus secundarius (CS) is an accessory ossicle of the anterior facet of the calcaneus and is usually asymptomatic. This accessory bone can be frequently mistaken for a fracture of the anterior process ...

    Authors: Sabrina Kepka, Marc Morel, Franck Garnier, François Pietra, Nicolas Marjanovic, Pascal Zeller, Pascal Bilbault, Stéphane Kremer and Guillaume Bierry

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:374

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:445

  28. An administrative database covering a whole population such as the national database in Japan may be used to estimate the nationwide prevalence of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when a well-valid...

    Authors: Kiyoshi Kubota, Masaki Yoshizawa, Satoru Takahashi, Yoshiaki Fujimura, Hiroko Nomura and Hitoshi Kohsaka

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:373

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Blocking of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) activity is a successful therapeutic approach for 50–60% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, there are yet no biomarkers to stratify patients for anti-TN...

    Authors: Antonio Julià, María López-Lasanta, Francisco Blanco, Antonio Gómez, Isabel Haro, Antonio Juan Mas, Alba Erra, Ma Luz García Vivar, Jordi Monfort, Simón Sánchez-Fernández, Isidoro González, Mercedes Alperi, Raúl Castellanos-Moreira, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, César Díaz-Torné, Núria Palau…

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:372

    Content type: Research article

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  30. With regard to biomechanical testing of orthopaedic implants, there is no consensus on whether artificial creation of standardized bone fractures or their simulation by means of osteotomies result in more real...

    Authors: J.F. Schader, I. Zderic, D. Gehweiler, J. Dauwe, K. Mys, C. Danker, Y. P. Acklin, C. Sommer, B. Gueorguiev and K. Stoffel

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:371

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. There is no consensus concerning the optimal casting technique for displaced distal radius fractures (DRFs) following closed reduction. This study evaluates whether a splint or a circumferential cast is most o...

    Authors: Britt Barvelink, Max Reijman, Niels W. L. Schep, Vanessa Brown, Gerald A. Kraan, Taco Gosens, Suzanne Polinder, Erwin Ista, Jan A. N. Verhaar and Joost W. Colaris

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:370

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. The effect of change in hip anatomy on change in gait pattern is not well described in current literature. Therefore, our primary aim was to describe and quantify changes in hip geometry and gait pattern 1 yea...

    Authors: A-C Esbjörnsson, S. Kiernan, L. Mattsson and G. Flivik

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:369

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Rehabilitation is an effective procedure for promoting functional recovery after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, it has been cited as a significant economic burden of medical car...

    Authors: Shu Takagawa, Naomi Kobayashi, Yohei Yukizawa, Takayuki Oishi, Masaki Tsuji, Toshihiro Misumi and Yutaka Inaba

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:368

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

    Authors: Chonachan Petcharat, Varalak Srinonprasert and Praveena Chiowchanwisawakit

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:367

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Rehabilitation is seen as crucial in dealing with the demographic change in many European countries. In Germany, for example, after having stayed in a rehabilitation center, patients have the possibility to pa...

    Authors: Darko Jekauc, Sabine Rayling, Sara Klopp, Detlef Schmidt, Lena-Marie Rittmann and Julian Fritsch

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:366

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  36. Along with emerging open access journals (OAJ) predatory journals increasingly appear. As they harm accurate and good scientific research, we aimed to examine the awareness of predatory journals and open acces...

    Authors: Elke Maurer, Nike Walter, Tina Histing, Lydia Anastasopoulou, Thaqif El Khassawna, Lisa Wenzel, Volker Alt and Markus Rupp

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:365

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12) deficiency results in elevated homocysteine levels and interference with collagen cross-linking, which may affect tendon integrity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether serum...

    Authors: Jae Hwa Kim, Go-Tak Kim, Siyeoung Yoon, Hyun Il Lee, Kyung Rae Ko, Sang-Cheol Lee, Do Kyung Kim, Jaeyeon Shin, So-young Lee and Soonchul Lee

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:364

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The evaluation of postoperative total knee arthroplasty (TKA) alignment mainly relies on measurement data obtained from plain radiographs. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to document the ...

    Authors: Shotaro Watanabe, Ryuichiro Akagi, Yuki Shiko, Yoshimasa Ono, Yohei Kawasaki, Toshihiro Ohdera, Seiji Ohtori and Takahisa Sasho

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:363

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, accounting for up to 5% of all Emergency Department visits in the United Kingdom. Ankle injury may be associated with future ankle osteoarthri...

    Authors: Thomas Bestwick-Stevenson, Laura A. Wyatt, Debbie Palmer, Angela Ching, Robert Kerslake, Frank Coffey, Mark E. Batt and Brigitte E. Scammell

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:362

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  40. One of the most important steps before implementing short stay total hip arthroplasty (THA) is establishing patient criteria. Most existing criteria are mainly based on medical condition, but as physical funct...

    Authors: Ellen Oosting, Paul J. C. Kapitein, Suzan V. de Vries and Ellen Breedveld

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:361

    Content type: Research article

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  41. 3D printing technology in hospitals facilitates production models such as point-of-care manufacturing. Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology is the specialty that can most benefit from the advantages of these to...

    Authors: Jose Antonio Calvo-Haro, Javier Pascau, Lydia Mediavilla-Santos, Pablo Sanz-Ruiz, Coral Sánchez-Pérez, Javier Vaquero-Martín and Rubén Perez-Mañanes

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:360

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Understanding muscle and tendon anatomy is of tremendous importance to achieve optimal surgical execution and results in tendon transfers around the shoulder. The aim of this study was to introduce and describ...

    Authors: Lukas Ernstbrunner, Malik Jessen, Marco Rohner, Manuel Dreu, Samy Bouaicha, Karl Wieser and Paul Borbas

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:359

    Content type: Research article

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  43. There is little evidence on techniques for management of peri-prosthetic infection (PJI) in the context of severe proximal femoral bone loss. Custom-made articulating spacers (CUMARS) utilising cemented femora...

    Authors: J. Quayle, A. Barakat, A. Klasan, A. Mittal, G. Chan, J. Gibbs, M. Edmondson and P. Stott

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:358

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been found to increase the risk of postoperative complications in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, few studies have investigated this by directly comparing pati...

    Authors: Atsuyuki Kawabata, Toshitaka Yoshii, Kenichiro Sakai, Takashi Hirai, Masato Yuasa, Hiroyuki Inose, Yu Matsukura, Shingo Morishita, Masaki Tomori, Ichiro Torigoe, Kazuo Kusano, Kazuyuki Otani, Yoshiyasu Arai, Shigeo Shindo and Atsushi Okawa

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:357

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Bi-modular stems were introduced in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) to enable better control of the femoral offset, leg length, and hip stability. Despite numerous reports on modular femoral neck fracture...

    Authors: Samo K. Fokter, Nenad Gubeljak, Jožef Predan, Jure Sevšek, Jan Zajc and Zmago Krajnc

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:356

    Content type: Case report

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  46. A recently published article by Lai et al. in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders trying to show that patients with pelvic fractures undergoing non-selective internal iliac artery embolization may lead to a higher r...

    Authors: Hui Li and Ping Hu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:355

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:335

  47. Obtaining and maintaining final shoulder balance after the entire treatment course is essential for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients. The relatively small number of growing-rod (GR) graduates who complete ...

    Authors: Ziyang Liu, Tie Liu, Yong Hai, Lingyun Wu, Junrui Jonathan Hai, Kang Gao, Xuanrong Guo, Honghao Yang, Nan Kang and Fan Zhao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:354

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by high serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), often originating from a pituitary adenoma. Spinal and peripheral joint abnormalities a...

    Authors: Daisuke Kamakura, Katsunori Fukutake, Kazumasa Nakamura, Shintaro Tsuge, Keiji Hasegawa, Naobumi Tochigi, Akihito Wada, Tetsuo Mikami and Hiroshi Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:353

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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