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Table 1 Results of the habituation period

From: Loudness affects motion: asymmetric volume of auditory feedback results in asymmetric gait in healthy young adults

 

loud

quiet

v

s

v*p

s*p

s*v

v*p*s

left

right

left

right

p

p

p

p

p

p

Stride length

 G1

1.005 ± 0.035

1.013 ± 0.045

0.919

0.226

 G2

0.996 ± 0.027

0.989 ± 0.040

Step length

 G1

0.996 ± 0.049

1.006 ± 0.049

1.017 ± 0.074

1.007 ± 0.050

0.965

0.512

0.148

0.533

0.351

0.320

 G2

0.991 ± 0.033

1.003 ± 0.043

0.980 ± 0.055

0.993 ± 0.052

Step width

 G1

1.02 ± 0.310

0.98 ± 0.301

0.184

0.044*

 G2

0.95 ± 0.229

1.11 ± 0.298

Gait direction

 G1

−0.53° ± 3.60°

0.06° ± 3.29°

0.619

0.521

 G2

0.36° ± 2.48°

0.30° ± 2.28°

Stride duration

 G1

1.001 ± 0.050

1.001 ± 0.053

0.989

0.974

 G2

1.999 ± 0.036

0.999 ± 0.039

Step duration

 G1

0.992 ± 0.057

1.014 ± 0.052

1.001 ± 0.056

1.005 ± 0.048

0.572

0.880

0.596

0.269

0.535

0.660

 G2

1.007 ± 0.041

0.991 ± 0.042

1.013 ± 0.039

0.994 ± 0.050

Ground contact time

 G1

1.015 ± 0.053

0.999 ± 0.042

1.008 ± 0.039

1.005 ± 0.041

0.822

0.847

0.752

0.410

0.334

0.605

 G2

0.992 ± 0.035

0.996 ± 0.032

0.994 ± 0.054

1.002 ± 0.032

Gait speed

 G1

1.009 ± 0.082

1.018 ± 0.091

0.957

0.438

 G2

0.996 ± 0.048

0.989 ± 0.066

Cadence

 G1

1.006 ± 0.090

0.992 ± 0.085

0.531

0.399

 G2

1.003 ± 0.028

1.005 ± 0.035

  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Gait direction is the difference of loud and quiet to the normal setting. All other parameters are loud and quiet relative to the normal setting. The p-values of the statistical analysis (ANOVA) are given in the right table section. The factors volume (v), side (s), the interaction volume*pitch (v*p), side*pitch (s*p), side*volume (s*v), and volume*pitch*side (v*p*s) were analyzed. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Significant differences are marked with a*