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Table 1 Results of the habituation period

From: Loudness affects motion: asymmetric volume of auditory feedback results in asymmetric gait in healthy young adults

  loud quiet v s v*p s*p s*v v*p*s
left right left right p p p p p p
Stride length
 G1 1.005 ± 0.035 1.013 ± 0.045 0.919 0.226
 G2 0.996 ± 0.027 0.989 ± 0.040
Step length
 G1 0.996 ± 0.049 1.006 ± 0.049 1.017 ± 0.074 1.007 ± 0.050 0.965 0.512 0.148 0.533 0.351 0.320
 G2 0.991 ± 0.033 1.003 ± 0.043 0.980 ± 0.055 0.993 ± 0.052
Step width
 G1 1.02 ± 0.310 0.98 ± 0.301 0.184 0.044*
 G2 0.95 ± 0.229 1.11 ± 0.298
Gait direction
 G1 −0.53° ± 3.60° 0.06° ± 3.29° 0.619 0.521
 G2 0.36° ± 2.48° 0.30° ± 2.28°
Stride duration
 G1 1.001 ± 0.050 1.001 ± 0.053 0.989 0.974
 G2 1.999 ± 0.036 0.999 ± 0.039
Step duration
 G1 0.992 ± 0.057 1.014 ± 0.052 1.001 ± 0.056 1.005 ± 0.048 0.572 0.880 0.596 0.269 0.535 0.660
 G2 1.007 ± 0.041 0.991 ± 0.042 1.013 ± 0.039 0.994 ± 0.050
Ground contact time
 G1 1.015 ± 0.053 0.999 ± 0.042 1.008 ± 0.039 1.005 ± 0.041 0.822 0.847 0.752 0.410 0.334 0.605
 G2 0.992 ± 0.035 0.996 ± 0.032 0.994 ± 0.054 1.002 ± 0.032
Gait speed
 G1 1.009 ± 0.082 1.018 ± 0.091 0.957 0.438
 G2 0.996 ± 0.048 0.989 ± 0.066
Cadence
 G1 1.006 ± 0.090 0.992 ± 0.085 0.531 0.399
 G2 1.003 ± 0.028 1.005 ± 0.035
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Gait direction is the difference of loud and quiet to the normal setting. All other parameters are loud and quiet relative to the normal setting. The p-values of the statistical analysis (ANOVA) are given in the right table section. The factors volume (v), side (s), the interaction volume*pitch (v*p), side*pitch (s*p), side*volume (s*v), and volume*pitch*side (v*p*s) were analyzed. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Significant differences are marked with a*