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Table 2 Equivalent stress of various cages and bone grafts under all circumstances

From: A lattice topology optimization of cervical interbody fusion cage and finite element comparison with ZK60 and Ti-6Al-4V cages

Equivalent Stress
  Ti ZK60 Optimized ZK60 vs Ti Optimized vs ZK60 Optimized vs Ti
Cage (MPa)
 Static 1.69 1.42 1.17 −15.57% −18.12% −30.87%
 Flexion 1.72 1.41 1.12 −18.03% −20.52% −34.85%
 Extension 1.76 1.52 1.25 −13.51% −17.89% −28.98%
 Left lateral bending 1.75 1.46 1.16 −16.51% −20.15% −33.34%
 Right lateral bending 1.76 1.48 1.21 −15.87% −18.55% −31.48%
 Left axial rotation 1.69 1.41 1.12 −16.15% −20.52% −33.35%
 Right axial rotation 1.69 1.43 1.17 −15.70% −18.27% −31.10%
Bone graft (KPa)
 Static 37.99 48.77 69.03 28.37% 41.55% 81.70%
 Flexion 38.42 47.91 67.24 24.69% 40.36% 75.02%
 Extension 39.10 51.26 74.79 31.07% 45.91% 91.25%
 Left lateral bending 39.00 49.67 70.45 27.38% 50.56% 91.77%
 Right lateral bending 38.66 49.48 70.00 27.99% 42.39% 82.24%
 Left axial rotation 37.95 47.87 67.12 26.13% 40.21% 76.85%
 Right axial rotation 38.14 48.93 69.33 28.29% 41.69% 81.79%