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Table 3 Comparison of changes from baseline in outcomes adjusted for baseline values and gender

From: Exercise-induced pain changes associate with changes in muscle perfusion in knee osteoarthritis: exploratory outcome analyses of a randomised controlled trial

  Exercise group Control group Comparison
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean Difference (95% CI) P-value
KOOS changes from baseline
 Pain 8.5 (2.5) −2.2 (2.5) 10.7 (3.3, 18.1) 0.006
 Symptoms 3.7 (3.1) −0.9 (3.0) 4.6 (−4.3, 13.6) 0.298
 Function in Daily Living 6.9 (3.0) 0.1 (2.9) 6.7 (−2.3, 15.8) 0.140
 Knee-Related Quality of Life 6.2 (3.7) −2.2 (3.5) 8.4 (−2.3, 19.0) 0.118
 Function in Sports and Recreation 9.2 (5.8) −1.0 (5.6) 10.3 (−6.7, 27.2) 0.245
DCE-MRI perfusion variables changes from baseline
 Total Muscle VOI
  Nvoxel% 2.6 (2.3) −5.2 (2.3) 7.7 (1.0, 14.5) 0.026
  IRExNvoxel − 51.6 (27.8) − 154.6 (27.0) 103.0 (22.1, 183.9) 0.014
  IRExNvoxel% −0.03 (0.02) −0.13 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03, 0.17) 0.008
  MExNvoxel 1409.8 (3749.7) − 10,032.9 (3632.9) 11,443.0 (− 531.4, 22,354.0) 0.041
  MExNvoxel% 2.3 (3.1) −8.3 (3.0) 10.6 (1.7, 19.4) 0.021
 Extensor VOI
  Nvoxel% 0.3 (3.2) −7.1 (3.1) 7.4 (−1.9, 16.6) 0.114
  IRExNvoxel −19.1(11.9) −58.6 (11.6) 39.6 (5.1, 74.1) 0.026
  IRExNvoxel% −0.03 (0.04) −0.21 (0.04) 0.18 (0.06, 0.3) 0.005
  MExNvoxel − 1093.6 (1364.8) − 3532.2 (1323.2) 2438.6 (− 1.491.4, 6368.6) 0.215
  MExNvoxel% −0.4 (4.6) −12.0 (4.5) 11.6 (− 1.8, 25.0) 0.087
 Flexor VOI
  Nvoxel% 3.2 (2.2) −5.2 (2.1) 8.5 (2.2, 14.8) 0.010
  IRExNvoxel −31.8 (18.6) − 96.5 (18.0) 64.6 (10.4, 118.8) 0.021
  IRExNvoxel% −0.03 (0.02) − 0.11(0.02) 0.08 (0.02, 0.14) 0.015
  MExNvoxel 3247.0 (2861.0) − 7200.6 (2770.1) 10,448 (2039.6, 18,856.0) 0.017
  MExNvoxel% 3.2 (2.8) −8.0 (2.7) 11.1 (3.0, 19.3) 0.009
Physical function changes from baseline
 Muscle strength Knee extension, Nm
  0°/s −1.0 (4.3) 4.9 (4.1) −5.8 (− 18.7, 7.0) 0.355
  60°/s −5.2 (3.0) 1.0 (2.9) −6.2 (−15.0, 2.6) 0.161
  120°/s −5.3 (2.8) −2.5 (2.7) −2.8 (−11.1, 5.5) 0.488
  180°/s − 2.7 (2.8) −1.3 (2.7) −1.4 (−9.8, 7.0) 0.728
 Muscle strength knee flexion, Nm
  0°/s 5.1 (3.0) 2.2 (2.9) 3.0 (−6.2, 12.1) 0.502
  60°/s 1.2 (2.4) 2.5 (2.3) −1.3 (−8.5, 5.9) 0.708
  120°/s −0.02 (1.8) 4.0 (1.8) −4.0 (−9.4, 1.4) 0.146
  180°/s −0.6 (2.0) 2.3 (2.0) −2.9 (−9.1, 3.2) 0.336
 6-min walk distance, m 39.8 (13.7) 1.3 (12.8) 38.4 (−0.76, 77.6) 0.054
  1. ANCOVA Analysis of covariance with each dependent variable adjusted for its baseline value and gender.
  2. Abbreviations: Mean Least Squares means (covariate adjusted means), SE Standard Error, CI Confidence interval, KOOS The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, DCE-MRI Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, Total Muscle VOI A volume of interest consisting of the summed and averaged peri-articular knee extensor and flexor muscle ROIs, Extensor VOI A volume of interest consisting of summed and averaged ROIs of the peri-articular knee extensor muscles, Flexor VOI A volume of interest consisting of summed and averaged ROIs of the peri-articular knee flexor muscles, Nvoxel% Proportion of Highly Perfused Voxels (%), IRExNvoxel Initial Rate of Enhancement Composite Score, IRExNvoxel% Initial Rate of Enhancement Index, MExNvoxel Maximal Enhancement Composite Score, MExNvoxel% Maximal Enhancement index