Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of studies included in the systematic review

From: MRI T2 and T1ρ relaxation in patients at risk for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Participants n (nmale) Age Scanner Coil T1ρ Sequence (resolution) TSL (ms)/SL Frequency (Hz) T2 Sequence (resolution) TR/TE
Amano et al. (2016)c Control 19 (13) 31±5 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.3×0.3×1.5) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 Sag 3D MAPSS (0.3×0.3×1.5) 4000/0, 13, 26, 51
ACL injured 51 (29) 29±9
van der Heijden et al. (2016)c Control 70 (29) 23±6 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx 3D FSE (0.5×0.8×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1, 16, 32, 64, 125/500 3D FSE (0.5×0.8×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1263/3, 13, 27, 40, 68
PFP 64 (35) 23±7
Apprich et al. (2010)bc ICRS Grade 0 14 (N/A) 37±8 3T Siemens 8-Ch Knee Array -- -- Ax 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) 1200/14, 28, 41, 55, 69, 83
ICRS Grade 1 5 (N/A) 37±8
Apprich et al. (2012)bc ICRS Grade 0 11 (N/A) 30±9 3T Siemens 8-Ch Knee Array -- -- Ax 2D MESE (0.2×0.2×2.0) 1200/14, 28, 41, 55, 69, 83
ICRS Grade 1 10 (N/A) 30±9
Bae et al. (2015)bc Uninjured Knee 10 (7) 34±8 3T Siemens Siemens 8-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- 2D ME-FSE (0.5×0.5×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1700/11, 21, 32, 42, 53, 64, 74, 85, 95, 106
ACLR Knee 10 (7) 34±8
Baum et al. (2012)ac OAI Healthy 42 (21) 50±3 3T Siemens Siemens 15-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 42 (21) 50±3
Baum et al. (2013)ac OAI Healthy 36 (11) 50±3 3T Siemens Siemens 15-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 78 (33) 51±3
Baum et al. (2012)ac OAI Healthy 41 (15) 51±3 3T Siemens Siemens 15-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 101 (50) 51±3
Möstrom et al. (2015)c Healthy Control 16 (9) 22±2 1.5T Philips N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.5×3.0) 2000/9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72
Patellar Dislocation 16 (9) 22±2
Bining et al. (2009)c Healthy Control 60 (N/A) 38±14 1.5T GE Signa HD Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.6×0.6×4.0) 1000/8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64
Cartilage Lesions 24 (N/A) 45±17
Bolbos et al. (2008)c Healthy Control 15 (11) 30±9 3T GE Tx/Rx Quadrature Knee Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×3.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACL Rupture 16 (11) 33±6
Farrokhi et al. (2011)bc Healthy Control 10 (0) 27±4 3T GE GE 8-Ch Knee -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.8×4.0) [3 slices/SR] 1800/20, 40, 60, 80
PFP 10 (0) 28±4
Gheno et al. (2016)c Healthy Control 27 (22) 28±4 3T Philips Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.3×3.0) 3100/15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90
ACLR 27 (22) 29±5
Van Ginckel et al. (2013) Healthy Control 15 (8) 27±3 3T Siemens 8-Ch Knee -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) 1000/14 28, 41, 55, 69
ACLR 15 (8) 27±1
Gupta et al. (2014)c Healthy Control 10 (8) 35±6 3T GE Tx/Rx Quadrature Knee Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×1.1×4.0) [3 slices/SR] 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACL Injury 10 (5) 39±6
Haughom et al. (2012)c Healthy Control 11 (4) 33±9 3T GE 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D SPGR (0.3×0.6×1.5) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACLR 11 (4) 33±9
Hovis et al. (2011)ac OAI Healthy 33 (8) 50±3 3T Siemens N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 128 (57) 51±3
Joseph et al. (2011)ac OAI Healthy 53 (17) 50±3 3T Siemens N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 93 (42) 51±3
Kai et al. (2011) c Healthy Control 143 (72) 40±13 1.5T Siemens Signa HD 8-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.6×0.6×4.0) 1000/8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64
Meniscal Lesions 57 (27) 41±13
Kang et al. (2016)c Healthy Control 53 (15) 16±2 1.5T GE N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.9×4.0) 1500/9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99
PF Instability 53 (15) 16±2
Lansdown et al. (2015)bc Healthy Control 10 (4) 31±5 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.6×0.6×3.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACLR 20 (8) 32±8
Lau et al. (2016)c Healthy Control 6 (3) 29 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx 2D FSE (0.3×0.6×1.5) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
PFP 10 (2) 32
Liebl et al. (2015)a OAI Healthy 80 (30) 58±8 3T Siemens USA Instruments Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.4×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
OAI Incidence 50 (22) 60±8
H. Li et al. (2013)c Healthy Control 15 (15) 27±5 3T Siemens N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) [5 slices/SR] 1523/14, 28, 41, 55, 69
ACLR 30 (30) 29±5
X. Li et al. (2011)ac Healthy Control 10 (7) 34 3T GE Quadrature Tx/Rx Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×1.1×2.5) 20, 40. 60, 80/500 Sag 2D MESE (0.5×1.1×2.5) 2000/7, 12, 28, 60
ACL Injured 12 (7) 34
Matsubara et al. (2015)c Healthy Control 19 (19) 39±7 3T Philips 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 2D FFE (0.4×0.4×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1, 20, 40, 60, 80/500 -- --
Meniscal Tear 22 (15) 57±14
Mosher et al. (2004) 18-30 y.o. Healthy 8 (0) 25±1 3T Bruker Doty Scientific Litz -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.5×3.0) 1500/9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99, 108
66-86 y.o. Healthy 7 (0) 75±7
Okazaki et al. (2015)c Healthy Control 6 (N/A) 32±2 3T Philips 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 2D SPGR (0.4×0.4×3.0) [4 slices/SR] 1, 20, 40, 60, 80/500 -- --
PCL Deficient 6 (N/A) 17±6
Osaki et al. (2015)c Healthy Control 14 (14) 37±6 3T Philips 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 2D SPGR (0.4×0.4×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1, 20, 40, 60, 80/500 -- --
ACL Injured 49 (30) 25±9
Palmieri-Smith et al. (2016) Healthy Control 11 (5) 20±5 3T Philips N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.5×2.0) 1000/8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64
ACL Injured 11 (5) 19±6
Pedoia et al. (2015)c Healthy Control 15 (N/A) 32±5 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACL Injured 40 (N/A) 30±8
Pedoia et al. (2016)c Healthy Control 10 (5) 32±4 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACL Injured 52 (21) 28±12
Pedoia et al. (2017)c Healthy Control 15 (10) 31±5 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 4000/0, 14, 27, 55
ACL Injured 40 (25) 30±8
Rehnitz et al. (2014)c Healthy Control 10 (N/A) 25 3T Siemens Siemens 15-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) [3 slices/SR] 1940/12, 24, 35, 47, 59, 71, 83, 94, 106, 118, 130, 142, 153
Cartilage Lesions 40 (N/A) 47
Russell et al. (2017)c Healthy Control 15 (6) 57±9 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 2D SPGR (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 40, 80/500 Sag 2D MESE (0.5×1.1×4.0) 4000/0, 2, 4, 7, 15, 29, 44, 58
Cartilage Lesions 15 (6) 56±8
Sauerschnig et al. (2014)c Neutral 12 (4) 25±2 1.5T Siemens Medical Advances 8-Ch -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.5×1.0) 1690/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60
Varus Alignment 12 (10) 26±1
ACLR 40 (26) 35±8
Snoj et al. (2016)bc Healthy Controls 20 (11) 33±7 3T Siemens Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) [2 slices/SR] 1000/14, 28, 41, 55, 69, 83
ACLR 40 (26) 35±8
Subhawong et al. (2014)c Healthy Control 28 (17) 31±10 3T Siemens N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (N/A) [1 slice/SR] 1650/13, 26, 39, 52, 65, 77
PFP 22 (8) 34±13
Su et al. (2013)c Healthy Control 16 (8) 33 3T GE Clinical MR Solutions Tx/Rx Quadrature Cor 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×4.0) 2000/4, 15, 25, 46
ACL Injured 15 (7) 35
Su et al. (2016)c Healthy Control 54 (31) 30±8 3T GE Clinical MR Solutions Tx/Rx Quadrature Cor 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×4.0) 2000/4, 15, 25, 46
ACL Injured 54 31(31) 30±8
Theologis et al. (2014)bc Healthy Control 18 (8) 38±8 3T GE Clinical MR Solutions Tx/Rx Quadrature Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×0.7×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
ACLR 18 (8) 38±8
Thuiller et al. (2013)c Healthy Control 10 (4) 31±3 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx 2D FSE (0.3×0.6×1.5) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
PFP 20 (10) 31±5
Wirth et al. (2016)ac Healthy Control 89 (36) 55±8 3T Siemens Siemens 15-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.3×0.3×3.0) 2700/10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70
Risk for OA 28 (14) 61±9
Witschey et al. (2010) Healthy Controls 9 (2) N/R 1.5T Siemens Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx 3D GRE (0.5×0.6×0.5) -- -- --
Cartilage Lesions 6 (3) N/R
Xu et al. (2011) Healthy Controls 30 (18) 25 3T Philips SENSE 8-Ch -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.3×3.0) 2400/15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90
Cartilage Injury 42 (25) 37
Zaid et al. (2015)bc Healthy Controls 25 (12) 28±7 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D SPGR (0.5×1.1×4.0) -- -- --
ACLR 25 (12) 28±7
Kim et al. (2018)bc Healthy Control 10 (7) 34±8 3T Siemens Siemens 8-Ch -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.5×3.0) [2 slices/SR] 1700/11, 21, 32, 42, 53, 64, 72, 85, 95, 106
ACLR 10 (7) 34±8
Kogan et al. (2018)c Healthy Control 15 (10) 33±11 3T GE NeoCoil 16-Ch Tx/Rx Flex -- -- 3D DESS (0.5×0.5×1.5) 24.6/5.8, 43.4
ACL Injured 15 (10) 33±11
Mostrom et al. (2017)c Healthy Control 17 (5) 25±3 1.5T Philips N/R -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.5×0.5×3.0) 2000/9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72
PF Instability 17 (5) 25±3
Pfeiffer et al. (2017)abc Healthy Control 21 (11) 24±3 3T Siemens Siemens XR 80/200 Gradient Coil 3D FLASH (1.8×0.9×3.0) 0, 10, 20, 30, 40/500 -- --
ACLR 21 (11) 24±3
Pietrosimone et al. (2017)bc Healthy Control 18 (8) 22±4 3T Siemens Siemens 4-Ch Flex Coil 3D FLASH (0.6×1.3×3.0) 0, 10, 20, 30, 40/500 -- --
ACLR 18 (8) 22±4
Tao et al. (2018)c Healthy Control 23 (7) 29±8 3T Siemens Siemens 8-Ch Tx/Rx -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) 1523/13.8, 27.6, 41.4, 55.2, 69.0
ACL Rupture 23 (5) 32±10
Teng et al. (2017)c Healthy Control 12 (8) 32±6 3T GE Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 10, 40, 80/500 Sag 3D MAPSS (0.5×1.1×4.0) 0, 14, 27, 55
ACL Rupture 33 (20) 31±9
Wang et al. (2018)c Healthy Control 9 (4) 26±5 3T Siemens Siemens 8-Ch -- -- Sag 2D MESE (0.4×0.4×3.0) [3/5/10 slices/SR] 1200/14, 28, 41, 55, 69
ACLR 28 (17) 30±6
Collins et al. (2018)b Normal BMI 8 (5) 30 3T Siemens Invivo 8-Ch Tx/Rx Sag 3D FISP (1.1×0.5×3.0) 3500/5, 10, 40, 80/500 -- --
Obese BMI 7 (3) 32
  1. ms milliseconds, SL spin lock, Hz Hertz, TR Repetition time, TE echo time, ACL anterior cruciate ligament, ACLR ACL reconstruction, GE General Electric, MAPSS magnetization-prepared spoiled gradient echo, SR subregion, PF patellofemoral, PFP patellofemoral pain, FFE fast field echo, FSE fast spin echo, ICRS International Cartilage Rating Scale, Ch channel, Sag sagittal, Cor coronal, Ax axial, MESE multi-echo spin echo, OAI Osteoarthritis Initiative, Tx transmit, Rx receive, N/R not reported, SPGR spoiled gradient recalled echo, FISP fast imaging with steady state precession
  2. amulticenter study
  3. buse of pre-scan unloading protocol
  4. cindicates post-processing methods that could be used in any dataset