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Table 2 Characteristics of studies that report outcomes of the Ponseti method in sub-Saharan Africaa

From: Assessment of success of the Ponseti method of clubfoot management in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Primary Author Year Country Number of children and (feet) treated Age Range Type of study (Level of Evidence) Comparator Group Duration of Follow up
Ibraheem 2017 [21], Nigeria 23 (14) <3 months Randomised controlled trial (II) Children managed by accelerated Ponseti treatment 32–77 days.
Malagelada 2016 [32], South Africa 65 (91) 4–63 months Cross sectional survey (IV) Cases in a UK urban clinic Not applicable
Smythe 2016 [35], Zimbabwe 173 (268) 17 days – 5 years 7 months Case series, retrospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases 10.2 weeks (9.5–10.9)
Boakye 2016 [38], Ghana 271 (430) <6 months Case series, Retrospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Adegbehingbe 2015 [39], Nigeria 4931 (7745) Not reported Case series (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Adewole 2014 [33], Nigeria 106 (158) 7 days – 4 years Case series, prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Mean: 3 years (range 2–4)
Ayana 2014 [24], Ethiopia 22 (32) 2–10 years Case series, prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Kouamo 2014 [40], Togo 24 (41) 17 days - 7 years Case series, prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not applicable
Mang’oli 2014, Kenya 223 (361) Mean 23 months Cross sectional survey (IV) Status of cases at previous appointment One year
Kaseke 2013 [41], Zimbabwe 14 (20) Mean 7.43 weeks Non randomised, prospective (III) Children managed with Kite technique 6 weeks
Adegbehingbe 2012 [42], Nigeria 493 (749) Not reported Case series, prospective (V) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Cashman 2012 [20], Malawi >2000 Not reported Case series (IV) No comparator Not reported
Pirani 2012 [43], Uganda 370 Majority under 14 weeks Case series, prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Harnett 2011 [44], Malawi 21 (32) <2 months Randomised controlled trial (II) Children managed by accelerated Ponseti treatment Mean 258 days (70 to 348)
Adegbehingbe 2010 [25], Nigeria 55 (80) <18 years Randomised controlled trial (II) Children treated by surgery 3–36 months post last cast
Radler 2010 [45], Mali 52 < 1 year Case series (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Firth 2009 [30], South Africa 70 (106) 1 day – 40 months Case series, retrospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Mean: 2 years 5 months
Biruk 2007 [26], Ethiopia 55 (82) < 6 months Case series, prospective (IV) Children in different age category Not reported
Lavy 2007 [28], Malawi 307 (482) <12 months Case series, retrospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Khan 2005 [27], South Africa (61) Not reported Case series (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases Not reported
Tindall 2005 [29], Malawi 75 (100) Under 4 years Case series, prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases 5 ft followed for 12-18 months
Mkandawire 2003 [36], Malawi 54 Under 2 years Case series, Prospective (IV) Pre-treatment status of cases 12 months
  1. aOrdered by year of publication