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Table 6 Comparison of patients with fluctuating and episodic LBP trajectory patterns

From: How can latent trajectories of back pain be translated into defined subgroups?

  Fluctuating Episodic
Mean distress at baseline (SD)
 Severe* 17.6 (8.8) 9.4 (7.8)
 Moderate* 13.0 (9.3) 7.7 (6.9)
 Mild* 8.8 (7.8) 6.1 (5.6)
 Minor (NS) 8.6 (7.3) 7.8 (.8)
Mean leg pain intensity at baseline (SD)
 Severe* 5.9 (3.1) 2.7 (3.0)
 Moderate* 3.5 (3.0) 2.5 (2.8)
 Mild* 3.3 (3.0) 1.9 (2.4)
 Minor (NS) 2.1 (2.3) 2.9 (3.2)
Mean activity limitation at 3-month follow-up (SD)
 Severe* 61.6 (19.3) 19.8 (21.8)
 Moderate* 49.5 (24.1) 10.3 (13.8)
 Mild* 29.6 (21.5) 6.1 (8.2)
 Minor (NS) 19.9 (22.7) 7.6 (15.2)
Expectations of future LBP at 12-month follow-up (%)
 Severe* n = 27 n = 235
  No future LBP 0 7%
  Episodic mild 0 53%
  Ongoing mild 7% 9%
  Episodic – varying intensity 11% 24%
  Ongoing – varying intensity 37% 2%
  Episodic severe 19% 5%
  Ongoing severe 26% 0
 Moderate* n = 72 n = 146
  No future LBP 1% 12%
  Episodic mild 15% 67%
  Ongoing mild 31% 5%
  Episodic – varying intensity 22% 14%
  Ongoing – varying intensity 22% 2%
  Episodic severe 8% 0
  Ongoing severe 0 0
 Mild* n = 80 n = 134
  No future LBP 3% 18%
  Episodic mild 25% 62%
  Ongoing mild 29% 8%
  Episodic – varying intensity 33% 11%
  Ongoing – varying intensity 6% 0
  Episodic severe 3% 1%
  Ongoing severe 3% 0
 Minor (NS) n = 20 n = 13
  No future LBP 5% 8%
  Episodic mild 50% 85%
  Ongoing mild 20% 0
  Episodic – varying intensity 15% 8%
  Ongoing – varying intensity 5% 0
  Episodic severe 5% 0
  Ongoing severe 0 0
  1. * p < .01