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Table 2 Operational definitions used for the previously defined trajectory subgroups

From: How can latent trajectories of back pain be translated into defined subgroups?

Subgroup label Intensity Variation
Severe ongoing pain Mean intensity > = 6 Intensity stays within +/− 1 of mean value
>4 days with LBP per week
Moderate ongoing pain Mean intensity > = 4 and <6 Intensity stays within +/− 1 of mean value
>4 days with LBP per week
Mild ongoing pain Mean intensity > = 2 and <4 Intensity stays within +/− 1 of mean value
>4 days with LBP per week
Minor ongoing pain/ recovery Mean intensity <2 Stays within +/− 1 of mean value AND
- no pain-free 4-weeks periods or
- always pain = 0
Severe fluctuating pain Mean intensity > = 6 Difference between mean and minimum or maximum value exceeds 1
No pain-free 4-weeks periods
Moderate fluctuating pain Mean intensity > = 4 and <6 Difference between mean and minimum or maximum value exceeds 1
No pain-free 4-weeks periods
Mild fluctuating pain Mean intensity > = 2 and <4 Difference between mean and minimum or maximum value exceeds 1
No pain-free 4-weeks periods
Minor fluctuating pain Mean intensity <2 Difference between mean and minimum or maximum value exceeds 1
No pain-free 4-weeks periods
Severe episodic pain Max intensity > = 6 Pain-free periods of min. 4 weeks in a row between weeks with pain. Four weeks or more without pain in the beginning or end of the course does not indicate a new episode.
Moderate episodic pain Max intensity > = 4 and <6 Pain-free periods of min. 4 weeks in a row between weeks with pain. Four weeks or more without pain in the beginning or end of the course does not indicate a new episode.
Mild episodic pain Max intensity > = 2 and <4 Pain-free periods of min. 4 weeks in a row between weeks with pain. Four weeks or more without pain in the beginning or end of the course does not indicate a new episode.
Minor episodic pain Max intensity <2 Pain-free periods of min. 4 weeks in a row, but not always pain = 0. Four weeks or more without pain in the beginning or end of the course does not indicate a new episode.
Severe single episode Max intensity > = 6 One episode lasting 1–2 weeks (which are not the first or the last week of measurement)
Moderate single episode Max intensity > = 4 and <6 One episode lasting 1–2 weeks (which are not the first or the last week of measurement)
Mild single episode Max intensity > = 2 and <4 One episode lasting 1–2 weeks (which are not the first or the last week of measurement)
Minor single episode Max intensity <2 One episode lasting 1–2 weeks (which are not the first or the last week of measurement)