Bogduk N: The anatomical basis for spinal pain syndromes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995, 18: 603-605.
Spitzer WO: Scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity-related spinal disorders. A monograph for clinicians. Report of the Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders. Spine. 1987, 12:
Waddell G: The back pain revolution. 1998, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone
Walsh TR, Weinstein JN, Spratt KF, Lehmann TR, Aprill CN, Sayreh H: Lumbar discography in normal subjects. J Bone Joint Surg (Am). 1990, 72: 1081-1088.
Carragee EJ, Tanner CM, Khurana S, Hayward C, Welsh J, Date E, Truong T, Rossi M, Hagle C: The rates of false-positive lumbar discography in select patients without low back symptoms. Spine. 2000, 25: 1373-1381. 10.1097/00007632-200006010-00009.
Bogduk N: An analysis of the Carragee data on false-positive discography. International Spinal Injection Society Scientific Newsletter. 2001, 4: 3-10.
Bogduk N, McGuirk B: Medical management of acute and chronic low back pain. Pain research and clinical management. 13:
Merskey H, Bogduk N: Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. 1994, Seattle: IASP Press
Guyer RD, Ohnmeiss DD: Contemporary Concepts in spine care. Lumbar discography. Spine. 1995, 20: 2048-2059.
Bogduk N, Modic MT: Controversy. Lumbar discography. Spine. 1996, 21: 402-404.
Dreyfuss PH, Dreyer SJ, Vaccaro A: Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint injections. The Spine Journal. 2003, 3: 50-59. 10.1016/S1529-9430(02)00450-3.
Fortin JD, Dwyer AP, West S, Pier J: Sacroiliac Joint: Pain referral maps upon applying a new injection/arthrography technique. Part 1: Asymptomatic volunteers. Spine. 1994, 19: 1475-1482.
Fortin JD, Aprill C, Pontieux RT, Pier J: Sacroiliac Joint: Pain referral maps upon applying a new injection/arthrography technique. Part II: Clinical evaluation. Spine. 1994, 19: 1483-1489.
Pruitt SD, Von Korff M: Improving the management of low back pain: a paradigm shift for primary care. Psychological approaches to pain management: a practitioner's handbook. Edited by: Turk DC, Gatchel RJ. 2002, New York: The Guilford Press, 301-316. 2
Andersson GBJ, Pope MH, Snook S: Occupational low back pain: Assessment, treatment and prevention. 1991, St Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book
Cherkin DC, Deyo RA, Berg AO: Evaluation of a physician education intervention to improve primary care for low back pain II. Spine. 1991, 16: 1173-1178.
McPhillips-Tangum CA, Cherkin DC, Rhodes LA, Markham C: Reasons for repeated medical visits among patients with chronic back pain. J Gen Intern Med. 1998, 13: 289-295. 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00093.x.
Laslett M, Van Wijmen P: Low back and referred pain:diagnosis and a proposed new system of classification. NZ Journal of Physiotherapy. 1999, 27: 5-14.
Petersen T, Laslett M, Thorsen H, Manniche C, Ekdahl C, Jacobsen S: Diagnostic classification of non-specific low back pain. A new system integrating patho-anatomic and clinical categories. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2003, 19: 213-237.
McKenzie RA: The Lumbar Spine: Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy. 1981, Waikanae: Spinal Publications Ltd
Donelson R, Silva G, Murphy K: Centralisation phenomenon – Its usefulness in evaluating and treating referred pain. Spine. 1990, 15 (3): 211-213.
Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W: A prospective study of centralization of lumbar and referred pain. A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine. 1997, 22: 1115-1122. 10.1097/00007632-199705150-00011.
Donelson R, Grant W, Kamps C, Medcalf R: Pain response to sagittal end range spinal motion: A multi-centered, prospective, randomized trial. Spine. 1991, 16: S206-S212.
McKenzie RA, May S: Mechanical diagnosis and Therapy: The lumbar spine. 2002, Waikanae, New Zealand: Spinal Publication Ltd
Revel M, Poiraudeau S, Auleley GR, Payan C, Denke A, Nguyen M, Chevrot A, Fermanian J: Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia. Proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints. Spine. 1998, 23: 1972-1977. 10.1097/00007632-199809150-00011.
Laslett M, Williams M: The reliability of selected pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint pathology. Spine. 1994, 19: 1243-1249.
Young SB, Aprill CN, Laslett M: Correlation of clinical examination characteristics with three sources of chronic low back pain. The Spine Journal. 2003, 3: 460-465. 10.1016/S1529-9430(03)00151-7.
Laslett M, Young SB, Aprill CN, McDonald B: Diagnosing painful sacroiliac joints: a validity study of a McKenzie evaluation and sacroiliac joint provocation tests. Aust J Physiother. 2003, 49: 89-97.
Fritz JM, Delitto A, Welch WC, Erhard RE: Lumbar spinal stenosis: A review of current concepts in evaluation, management, and outcome measurements. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1998, 79: 700-708. 10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90048-X.
Cyriax J: Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine. Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Lesions. 1975, London: Balliere Tindall, one:
Ombregt L, Bisschop P, ter Veer HJ, Van de Velde T: A system of orthopaedic medicine. 1995, London: WB Saunders Company Ltd
Hicks GE, Fritz JM, Delitto A, Mishock L: Interrater reliability of clinical examination measures for identification of lumbar segmental instability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003, 84: 1858-1864. 10.1016/S0003-9993(03)00365-4.
Nachemson A: Instability of the lumbar spine. Pathology, treatment, and clinical evaluation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1991, 2: 785-790.
Pitkanen MT, Manninen HI, Lindgren KA, Sihvonen TA, Airaksinen O, Soimakallio S: Segmental lumbar spine instability at flexion-extension radiography can be predicted by conventional radiography. Clin Radiol. 2002, 57: 632-639. 10.1053/crad.2001.0899.
Ehara S, Shimamura T: Paradoxical motion in spondylolisthesis due to two-segment instability. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1997, 116: 435-436.
O'Sullivan PB: Lumbar segmental 'instability': clinical presentation and specific stabilizing exercise management. Manual Therapy. 2000, 5: 2-12. 10.1054/math.1999.0213.
Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P, Hides J: Therapeutic exercise for spinal segmental stabilization in low back pain. Scientific basis and clinical approach. 1999, London: Churchill Livingstone
Altman DG, Machin D, Bryant TN, Gardner MJ: Statistics with confidence. 2000, Bristol: British Medical Journal
Landis RJ, Koch GG: The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977, 33: 159-174.
Bryant TN: Confidence Intervals Analysis. 2.0 Build 41. 2000, Bristol, BMJ Books
Huberty CJ: Issues in the use and interpretation of discriminant analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 1984, 95: 156-171. 10.1037//0033-2909.95.1.156.
Freund JE: Modern elementary statistics. 1988, London: Prentice-Hall International
Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Guyatt GH, Tugwell P: Clinical epidemiology: a basic science for clinical medicine. 1991, Boston: Little, Brown & Company
Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N: The relative contributions of the disc and zygapophyseal joint in chronic low back pain. Spine. 1994, 19: 801-806.
Schwarzer AC, Aprill C, Derby R, Fortin JD, Kine G, Bogduk N: The prevalence and clinical features of internal disc disruption in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 1995, 20: 1878-1883.
Offierski CM, Macnab I: Hip-Spine Syndrome. Spine. 1983, 8: 316-321.
Fogel GR, Esses SI: Hip Spine syndrome: management of coexisting radiculopathy and arthritis of the lower extremity. The Spine Journal. 2003, 3: 238-241. 10.1016/S1529-9430(02)00453-9.
Hourigan PG, Weatherley CR: Initial assessment and follow-up by a physiotherapist of patients with back pain referred to a spinal clinic. J R Soc Med. 1994, 87: 213-214.
Hourigan PG, Weatherley CR: The physiotherapist as an orthopaedic assistant in a back pain clinic. Physiotherapy. 1995, 81: 546-548.
Hockin J, Bannister G: The extended role of a physiotherapist in an out-patient orthopaedic clinic. Physiotherapy. 1994, 80: 281-284.
Daker-White G, Carr AJ, Harvey I, Woolhead G, Bannister G, Nelson I, Kammerling M: A randomised controlled trial. Shifting boundaries of doctors and physiotherapists in orthopaedic outpatient departments. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999, 53: 643-650.
Battie MC, Cherkin DC, Dunn R, Clol MA, Wheeler KJ: Managing Low Back Pain : Attitudes and Treatment Preferences of Physical Therapists. Phys Ther. 1994, 74 (3): 219-226.
Razmjou H, Kramer JF, Yamada R: Inter-tester reliability of the McKenzie evaluation in mechanical low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000, 30: 368-383.
Kilpikoski S, Airaksinen O, Kankaanpaa M, Leminen P, Videman T, Alen M: Interexaminer reliability of low back pain assessment using the McKenzie method. Spine. 2002, 27: E207-E214. 10.1097/00007632-200204150-00016.
Aina A, May S, Clare H: The centralization phenomenon of spinal symptoms – a systematic review. Manual Therapy. 2004, 9: 134-143. 10.1016/j.math.2004.03.004.
Laslett M, Oberg B, Aprill CN, McDonald B: Centralization as a predictor of provocation discography results in chronic low back pain, and the influence of disability and distress on diagnostic power. The Spine Journal.
Manchikanti L, Pampati V, Fellows B, Baha GA: The inability of the clinical picture to characterize pain from facet joints. Pain Physician. 2000, 3: 158-166.
Laslett M, Oberg B, Aprill CN, McDonald B: Zygapophysial joint blocks in chronic low back pain: A test of Revel's model as a screening test. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2004, 5: 43-10.1186/1471-2474-5-43.
Petersen T, Olsen S, Laslett M, Thorsen H, Manniche C, Ekdahl C, Jacobsen S: Inter-tester reliability of a new diagnostic classification system for patients with non-specific low back pain. Aust J Physio. 2004, 50: 85-91.
Carragee EJ, Tanner CM, Yang B, Brito JL, Truong T: False-positive findings on lumbar discography. Reliability of subjective concordance assessment during provocative disc injection. Spine. 1999, 24: 2542-2547. 10.1097/00007632-199912010-00017.
Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N: The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain. 1994, 58: 195-200. 10.1016/0304-3959(94)90199-6.
Saal JS: General principles of diagnostic testing as related to painful lumbar spine disorders: a critical appraisal of current diagnostic techniques. Spine. 2002, 27: 2538-2545. 10.1097/00007632-200211150-00027.
Schwarzer AC, Aprill C, Derby R, Fortin JD, Kine G, Bogduk N: Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity?. Spine. 1994, 15: 1132-1137.
Bogduk N: Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacrum. 1997, London: Churchill Livingstone
Weinstein SM, Herring SA, Derby R: Contemporary concepts in spine care. Epidural steriod injections. Spine. 1995, 20: 1842-1846.
Roland M, Morris R: A study of the natural history of back pain. Part I: Development of a reliable and sensitive measure of disability in low-back pain. Spine. 1983, 8: 141-150.
Zung WWK: A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psych. 1965, 12: 63-70.
Main CJ: The modified somatic perception questionnaire (MSPQ). J Psychosom Res. 1983, 27: 503-514. 10.1016/0022-3999(83)90040-5.
Roland M, Morris R: A study of the natural history of low back pain. Part II: Development of guidelines for trials of treatment in primary care. Spine. 1983, 8: 145-150.
Main CJ, Wood PL, Hollis S, Spanswick CC, Waddell G: The distress and risk assessment method. A simple patient classification to identify distress and evaluate the risk of poor outcome. Spine. 1992, 17: 42-52.
Spangfort EV: The lumbar disc herniation. A computer-aided analysis of 2,504 operations. Acta Orthop Scand. 1972, 142: 1-95.
Hakelius A: Prognosis in sciatica. Acta Orthop Scand. 1970, 129 (suppl): 1-70.
Kosteljanetz M, Bang F, Schmidt-Olsen S: The clinical significance of straight-leg-raising (Lasègue sign) in the diagnosis of prolapsed intervertebral disc. Spine. 1988, 13: 393-395.
Andersson GBJ, Deyo RA: History and examination in patients with herniated lumbar discs. Spine. 1996, 21: 10S-18S.
Bogduk N: Commentary on A prospective study of centralization and lumbar and referred pain: A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal. 1997, 3: 246-248.
Schwarzer AC, Derby R, Aprill CN, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N: Pain from the lumbar zygapophysial joints: a test of two models. J Spinal Disord. 1994, 7: 331-336.
Katz JN, Dalgas M, Stucki G, Lipson SG: Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Diagnostic value of the history and physical examination. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1995, 38: 1236-1241.
Fritz JM, Erhard RE, Delitto A, Welch WC, Nowakowski PE: Preliminary results of the use of a two-stage treadmill test as a clinical diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. J Spinal Disorders. 1997, 10: 410-416.
Dong GX, Porter RW: Walking and cycling tests in neurogenic and intermittent claudication. Spine. 1989, 14: 965-969.
Spivak JM: Current concepts review: Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1998, 80-A: 1053-1066.
Baber YF, Robinson AH, Villar RN: Is diagnostic arthroscopy of the hip worthwhile? A prospective review of 328 adults investigated for hip pain. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000, 81: 600-603. 10.1302/0301-620X.81B4.8803.
Stamathis G: Arthrography of the hip. Clinical arthrography. Edited by: Arndt R-D, Horns JW, Gold RH. 1985, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 129-172. 2