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Table 2 Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of factors in 1998 that predicted self-reported sickness absence 1–12 days (n = 399) and >12 days (n = 267) because of MSD in 2000 (total n = 3036)

From: Low back pain and widespread pain predict sickness absence among industrial workers

Risk factor (1998) Number of exposed individuals Short-term sickness absence (1–12 days) (2000) (n = 399) Long-term sickness absence (>12 days) (2000) (n = 267)
  n (%) RR P (95% CI) RR P (95% CI)
Pain often/very often from:        
   Neck 516 (17.1) 2.0 <0.001 (1.6–2.4) 2.7 <0.001 (2.1–3.4)
   Shoulder 584 (19.4) 1.7 <0.001 (1.3–2.0) 2.7 <0.001 (2.2–3.4)
   Elbow 187 (6.2) 1.6 0.005 (1.2–2.2) 2.3 <0.001 (1.7–3.2)
   Hand 252 (8.4) 1.7 <0.001 (1.3–2.2) 2.1 <0.001 (1.6–2.8)
   Upper back 193 (6.4) 1.7 0.002 (1.2–2.2) 2.5 <0.001 (1.8–3.3)
   Lower back 633 (21.0) 2.2 <0.001 (1.8–2.6) 2.7 <0.001 (2.1–3.3)
   Hip 193 (6.4) 1.5 0.013 (1.1–2.1) 2.5 <0.001 (1.8–3.4)
   Knee 316 (10.5) 1.8 <0.001 (1.4–2.3) 2.2 <0.001 (1.7–2.9)
   Foot 196 (6.5) 2.0 <0.001 (1.5–2.6) 2.4 <0.001 (1.7–3.3)
Widespread pain        
   No body parts 1588 (52.8) 1.0    1.0   
   One body part 570 (18.9) 2.1 <0.001 (1.6–2.9) 2.3 <0.001 (1.7–3.3)
   Two or more body parts 852 (28.3) 2.8 <0.001 (2.3–3.4) 4.5 <0.001 (3.4–5.8)
Gender        
   Men 2585 1.0    1.0   
   Women 418 (13.9) 1.2 0.260 (0.9–1.5) 1.1 0.40 (0.8–1.6)
Job category        
   White collar 967 1.0    1.0   
   Blue collar 1941 (66.7) 2.3 <0.001 (1.8–2.9) 3.3 <0.001 (2.3–4.6)
Age (years)        
   <30 453 (14.9) 1.0    1.0   
   30–50 1933 (63.8) 1.1 0.34 (0.9–1.5) 1.5 0.026 (1.0–2.2)
   >50 645 (21.3) 0.8 0.16 (0.6–1.1) 1.4 0.10 (0.9–2.2)
Shift work 1344 (46.4) 1.4 0.001 (1.1–1.7) 1.1 0.32 (0.9–1.4)
Smoking 1287 (43.3) 1.4 <0.001 (1.2–1.7) 1.1 0.24 (0.9–1.4)
Body mass index (BMI)        
   Normal (20–24.9) 1395 (46.6) 1.0    1.0   
   Low (<20) 65 (2.2) 0.8 0.50 (0.4–1.6) 0.6 0.35 (0.2–1.8)
   High (>25) 1532 (51.2) 1.0 0.70 (0.9–1.2) 1.3 0.018 (1.0–1.7)
Physical activity        
   <2 hours/week 1169 (39.0) 1.0    1.0   
   2–5 hours/week 1319 (44.0) 0.8 0.032 (0.7–1.0) 0.8 0.19 (0.7–1.1)
   >5 hours/week 508 (17.0) 1.0 0.76 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 0.69 (0.7–1.3)
High job strain 1411 (48.4) 1.7 <0.01 (1.4–2.0) 1.9 <0.001 (1.5–2.9)
Low social support 1171 (39.8) 1.2 0.037 (1.0–1.5) 1.0 0.80 (0.8–1.3)
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