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Table 4 Multiple logistic regression analysis results: Urine pH and acid excretion associations with fragility fractures*

From: Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

Fracture type   Unadjusted estimate p-value Adjusted estimate p-value
Urine pH:
Fragility fractures Odds ratio: 1.07 0.76 0.97 0.91
  95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 1.63   0.58 to 1.63  
  c-statistic: 0.514   0.731  
Urine Acid excretion:
Fragility fractures Odds ratio: 1.00 0.76 1.00 0.92
  95% confidence interval: 0.99 to 1.01   0.99 to 1.02  
  c-statistic: 0.510   0.731  
  1. *The following variables were included in the adjusted models to control for confounding: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, body mass index (BMI), change in BMI, estrogen status, physical activity, calcium intake, vitamin D status, smoking, kidney disease, urine creatinine, thiazide diuretics, and bisphosphonate use.