Punnett L, Bergqvist U: Visual display unit work and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A review of epidemiological findings. (National Institute for Working Life - Ergonomic Expert Committee Document No 1). Arbete och Hälsa. 1997, 1-161.
Veiersted KB, Wærsted M: Distal upper limb disorders and ergonomics of VDU work: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Norsk Epidemiologi. 1999, 9: 13-20.
Tittiranonda P, Burastero S, Rempel D: Risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Occup Med. 1999, 14: 17-38.
Ming Z, Zaproudina N: Computer use related upper limb musculoskeletal (ComRULM) disorders. Pathophysiology. 2003, 9: 155-160. 10.1016/S0928-4680(03)00004-X.
Wahlström J: Ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders and computer work. Occup Med (Lond). 2005, 55: 168-176. 10.1093/occmed/kqi083.
Gerr F, Monteilh CP, Marcus M: Keyboard use and musculoskeletal outcomes among computer users. J Occup Rehabil. 2006, 16: 265-277. 10.1007/s10926-006-9037-0.
IJmker S, Huysmans MA, Blatter BM, Beek van der AJ, van Mechelen W, Bongers PM: Should office workers spend fewer hours at their computer? A systematic review of the literature. Occup Environ Med. 2007, 64: 211-222. 10.1136/oem.2006.026468.
Griffiths KL, Mackey MG, Adamson BJ: The impact of a computerized work environment on professional occupational groups and behavioural and physiological risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms: a literature review. J Occup Rehabil. 2007, 17: 743-765. 10.1007/s10926-007-9108-x.
Crawford JO, Laiou E, Spurgeon A, McMillan G: Musculoskeletal disorders within the telecommunications sector--A systematic review. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2008, 38: 56-72. 10.1016/j.ergon.2007.08.005.
National research council, institute of medicine: Musculoskeletal disorders and the workplace. Low back and upper extremities. 2001, Washington DC: National academy press
Thomsen JF, Gerr F, Atroshi I: Carpal tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008, 9: 134-10.1186/1471-2474-9-134.
Thomsen JF: Carapl tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard. Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. 2005
Veiersted KB, Nordberg T, Wærsted M: A critical review of evidence for a causal relationship between computer work and musculoskeletal disorders with physical findings of the neck and upper extremity. Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. 2006
Ariëns GAM, van Mechelen W, Bongers PM, Bouter LM, Wal van der G: Physical risk factors for neck pain. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000, 26: 7-19.
Bernard BP: Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors. A critical review of epidemiologic evidence for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, upper extremity, and low back. 1997, NIOSH
Hill AB: Principles of medical statistics. 1971, New York: Oxford University Press, 9
Jensen LK: Knee osteoarthritis: influence of work involving heavy lifting, kneeling, climbing stairs or ladders, or kneeling/squatting combined with heavy lifting. Occup Environ Med. 2008, 65: 72-89. 10.1136/oem.2007.032466.
Hoppenfeld S: Physical examination of the spine and extremities. 1976, London: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Bonica JJ: The management of pain. 1990, Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 2
Aarås A, Horgen G, Ro O, Løken E, Mathiasen G, Bjørset HH: The effect of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal, psychosocial and visual strain of VDT data entry work: the Norwegian part of the international study. Int J Occup Safety Ergon. 2005, 11: 25-47.
Arvidsson I, Axmon A, Skerfving S: Follow-up study of musculoskeletal disorders 20 months after the introduction of a mouse-based computer system. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008, 34: 374-380.
Aydeniz A, Gursoy S: Upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008, 38: 235-238.
Baker NA, Sussman NB, Redfern MS: Discriminating between individuals with and without musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity by means of items related to computer keyboard use. J Occup Rehabil. 2008, 18: 157-165. 10.1007/s10926-008-9127-2.
Bergqvist U, Wolgast E, Nilsson B, Voss M: The influence of VDT work on musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomics. 1995, 38: 754-762. 10.1080/00140139508925147.
Bergqvist U, Wolgast E, Nilsson B, Voss M: Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal workers: individual, ergonomic, and work organizational factors. Ergonomics. 1995, 4: 763-776. 10.1080/00140139508925148.
Conlon CF, Krause N, Rempel DM: A randomised controlled trial evaluating an alternative mouse and forearm support on upper body discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders among engineers. Occup Environ Med. 2008, 65: 311-318. 10.1136/oem.2006.032243.
Dainoff MJ, Cohen BG, Dainoff MH: The effect of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal, psychosocial, and visual strain of VDT data entry work: the United States part of the international study. Int J Occup Safety Ergon. 2005, 11: 49-63.
Ferraz MB, Frumkin H, Helfenstein M, Gianeschini C, Atra E: Upper-extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders in Keyboard Operators in Brazil: A cross-sectional study. Int J Occup Environ Health. 1995, 1: 239-244.
Ferreira M, Conceicão GMS, Salvida PHN: Work organization is significantly associated with upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders among employees engaged in interactive computer-telephone tasks of an international bank susidiary in São Paulo, Brazil. Am J Ind Med. 1997, 31: 468-473. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199704)31:4<468::AID-AJIM14>3.0.CO;2-Y.
Fogg T, Henderson R: Upper extremity musculoskeletal strain in a sample of New Zealand clerical workers: an examination of self-reported and diagnostic strain. J Occup Health Safety - Aust NZ. 1996, 12: 207-212.
Gerr F, Marcus M, Ensor C, Kleinbaum D, Cohen S, Edwards A: A prospective study of computer users: I. Study design and incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Am J Ind Med. 2002, 41: 221-235. 10.1002/ajim.10066.
Marcus M, Gerr F, Monteilh C, Ortiz DJ, Gentry E, Cohen S: A prospective study of computer users: II. Postural risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Am J Ind Med. 2002, 41: 236-249. 10.1002/ajim.10067.
Hales TR, Sauter SL, Peterson MR, Fine LJ, Putz-Anderson V, Schleifer LR: Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal users in a telecommunications company. Ergonomics. 1994, 37: 1603-1621. 10.1080/00140139408964940.
Hünting W, Läubli T, Grandjean E: Postural and visual loads at VDT workplaces. I. Constrained postures. Ergonomics. 1981, 24 (12): 917-931. 10.1080/00140138108924914.
Jepsen JR, Thomsen G: A cross-sectional study of the relation between symptoms and physical findings in computer operators. BMC Neurol. 2006, 6: 40-10.1186/1471-2377-6-40.
Konarska M, Wolska A, Widerszal-Bazyl M, Bugajska J, Roman-Liu D, Aarås A: The effect of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal, psychosocial and visual strain of VDT data entry work: the polish part of the international study. Int J Occup Safety Ergon. 2005, 11: 65-76.
Brandt LPA, Andersen JH, Lassen CF, Kryger A, Overgaard E, Vilstrup I: Neck and shoulder symptoms and disorders among Danish computer workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2004, 30: 399-409.
Kryger AI, Andresen JH, Lassen CF, Brandt LPA, Vilstrup I, Overgaard E: Does computer use pose an occupational hazard for forearm pain; from the NUDATA study. Occup Environ Med. 2003, 60: e14-10.1136/oem.60.11.e14.
Lassen CF, Mikkelsen S, Kryger AI, Brandt LP, Overgaard E, Thomsen JF: Elbow and wrist/hand symptoms among 6,943 computer operators: a 1-year follow-up study (the NUDATA study). Am J Ind Med. 2004, 46: 521-533. 10.1002/ajim.20081.
Rempel DM, Krause N, Goldberg R, Benner D, Hudes M, Goldner GU: A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of two workstation interventions on upper body pain and incident musculoskeletal disorders among computer operators. Occup Environ Med. 2006, 63: 300-306. 10.1136/oem.2005.022285.
Ryan GA, Bampton M: Comparison of data process operators with and without upper limb symptoms. Community Health Studies. 1988, 12: 63-68. 10.1111/j.1753-6405.1988.tb00573.x.
Toomingas A, Nilsson T, Hagberg M, Hagman M, Tornqvist EW: Symptoms and clinical findings from the musculoskeletal system among operators at a call centre in Sweden--a 10-month follow-up study. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2003, 9: 405-418.
Tornqvist EW, Kilbom Å, Vingård E, Alfredsson L, Hagberg M, Theorell T: The influence on seeking care because of neck and shoulder disorders from work-related exposures. Epidemiology. 2001, 12: 537-545. 10.1097/00001648-200109000-00013.
Turhan N, Akat C, Akyüz M, Cakci A: Ergonomic risk factors for cumulative trauma disorders in VDU operators. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2008, 14: 417-422.
Walker-Bone K, Reading I, Coggon D, Cooper C, Palmer KT: Risk factors for specific upper limb disorders as compared with non-specific upper limb pain: assessing the utility of a structured examination schedule. Occup Med (Lond). 2006, 56: 243-250. 10.1093/occmed/kql016.
Arvidsson I, Hansson GÅ, Mathiassen SE, Skerfving S: Changes in physical workload with implementation of mouse-based information technology in air traffic control. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2006, 36: 613-622. 10.1016/j.ergon.2006.03.002.
Baker NA, Redfern MS: Developing an observational instrument to evaluate personal computer keyboarding style. Appl Ergonomics. 2005, 36: 345-354. 10.1016/j.apergo.2004.11.003.
Baker NA, Cook JR, Redfern MS: Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS). Appl Ergon. 2009, 40: 136-144. 10.1016/j.apergo.2007.12.008.
Horgen G, Aarås A, Dainoff MJ, Konarska M, Thoresen M, Cohen BGF: A cross-country comparison of short- and long-term effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal discomfort, eyestrain and psychosocial stress in VDT operators: Selected aspects of the international project. Int J Occup Safety Ergon. 2005, 11: 77-92.
Mikkelsen S, Vilstrup I, Lassen CF, Kryger AI, Thomsen JF, Andersen JH: Validity of questionnaire self-reports on computer, mouse and keyboard usage during a four-week period. Occup Environ Med. 2007, 64: 541-547. 10.1136/oem.2005.026351.
Lassen CF: Computer work and development of pain and disorders in elbow, forearm, wrist and hand (PhD thesis). 2005, University of Copenhagen
Arvidsson I, Arvidsson M, Axmon A, Hansson GÅ, Johansson CR, Skerfving S: Musculoskeletal disorders among female and male air traffic controllers performing identical and demanding computer work. Ergonomics. 2006, 49: 1052-1067. 10.1080/00140130600733816.
Gerr F, Marcus M, Monteilh C: Epidemiology of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users: lesson learned from the role of posture and keyboard use. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2004, 14: 25-31. 10.1016/j.jelekin.2003.09.014.
Karlqvist L, Tornqvist EW, Hagberg M, Hagman M, Toomingas A: Self-reported workin conditions of VDU operators and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms: a cross-sectional study focussing on gender differences. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2002, 30: 277-294. 10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00131-2.
Blatter BM, Bongers PM: Duration of computer use and mouse use in relation to musculoskeletal disorders of neck or upper limb. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2002, 30: 295-306. 10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00132-4.
Demure B, Luippold RS, Bigelow C, Danielle A, Mundt KA, Liese B: Video display terminal workstation improvement program: I. Baseline association between musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic features of workstations. J Occup Environ Med. 2000, 42: 783-791. 10.1097/00043764-200008000-00004.
Jensen C, Finsen L, Søgaard K, Christensen H: Musculoskeletal symptoms and duration of computer and mouse use. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2002, 30: 265-275. 10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00130-0.
Jensen C: Development of neck and hand-wrist symptoms in relation to duration of computer use at work. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003, 29: 197-205.
Juul-Kristensen B, Søgaard K, Strøyer J, Jensen C: Computer user's risk factors for developing shoulder, elbow and back symptoms. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2004, 30: 390-398.
Bergqvist U, Knave B, Voss M, Wibom R: A longitudinal study of VDT work and health. Int J Hum-Computer Interact. 1992, 4: 197-219. 10.1080/10447319209526036.
Korhonen T, Ketola R, Toivonen R, Luukkonen R, Häkkänen M, Viikari-Juntura E: Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office emplayees working with video desplay units. Occup Environ Med. 2003, 60: 475-482. 10.1136/oem.60.7.475.
Aarås A, Horgen G, Bjørset HH, Ro O, Walsøe H: Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators before and after multidisciplinary ergonomic interventions. A 6 years prospective study - Part II. Appl Ergonomics. 2001, 32: 559-571. 10.1016/S0003-6870(01)00030-8.
Cook C, Burgess-Limerick R, Papalia S: The effect of upper extremity support on upper extremity posture and muscle activity during keyboard use. Appl Ergonomics. 2004, 35: 285-292. 10.1016/j.apergo.2003.12.005.
Aarås A, Dainoff M, Ro O, Thoresen M: Can a more neutral position of the forearm when operating a computer mouse reduce the pain level for VDU operators?. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 2002, 30: 307-324. 10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00133-6.
Andersen JH, Kaergaard A, Mikkelsen S, Jensen UF, Frost P, Bonde JP: Risk factors in the onset of neck/shoulder pain in a prospective study of workers in industrial and service companies. Occup Environ Med. 2003, 60: 649-654. 10.1136/oem.60.9.649.
Jensen C, Finsen L, Hansen K, Christensen H: Upper trapezius muscle activity patterns during repetitive manual material handling and work with a computer mouse. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1999, 9: 317-325. 10.1016/S1050-6411(99)00007-3.
Wærsted M, Westgaard RH: Attention-related muscle activity in different body regions during VDU work with minimal physical activity. Ergonomics. 1996, 39: 661-676.
Ekberg K, Eklund J: Psychological stress and muscle activity during data entry at visual display units. Work & Stress. 1995, 9: 475-490.
Laursen B, Jensen BR, Garde AH, Jørgensen AH: Effect of mental and physical demands on muscular activity during the use of a computer mouse and a keyboard. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002, 28: 215-221.
Sporrong H, Palmerud G, Kadefors R, Herberts P: The effect of light manual precision work on shoulder muscles - an EMG analysis. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1998, 8: 177-184. 10.1016/S1050-6411(97)00032-1.
Veiersted KB: Sustained muscle tension as a risk factor for trapezius myalgia. Int J Industrial Ergonomics. 1994, 14: 333-339. 10.1016/0169-8141(94)90021-3.
Holte KA, Vasseljen O, Westgaard RH: Exploring perceived tension as a response to psychosocial work stress. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003, 29: 124-133.
Wahlström J, Hagberg M, Toomingas A, Wigaeus Tornqvist E: Perceived muscular tension, job strain, physical exposure, and associations with neck pain among VDU users; a prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 2004, 61: 523-528. 10.1136/oem.2003.009563.
Faucett J, Rempel D: VDT-related musculoskeletal symptoms: Interactions between work posture and psychosocial work factors. Am J Ind Med. 1994, 26: 597-612. 10.1002/ajim.4700260503.
Wolgast E: Screening av muskel- och ledsjukdomar i nacke, skuldra och arm - en metodbeskrivning. (In Swedish: Methodology for screening of musculoskeletal disorders in neck, shoulder and arm.) Undersökningsrapport, Arbetsmiljöinstitutet. 1989, 34: 1-16.
Windt van der DAWM, Thomas E, Pope DP, de Winter AF, Macfarlane GJ, Bouter LM: Occupational risk factors for shoulder pain: a systematic review. Occup Environ Medicine. 2000, 57: 433-442. 10.1136/oem.57.7.433.
Palmer KT, Cooper C, Walker-Bone K, Syddall H, Coggon D: Use of keyboard and symptoms in the neck and arm: evidence from a national survey. Occup Med. 2001, 51: 392-395. 10.1093/occmed/51.6.392.
Aarås A, Dainoff M, Ro O, Thoresen M: Can a more neutral position of the forearm when operating a computer mouse reduce the pain level for visual display unit operators? A prospective epidemiological intervention study: Part II. Int J Hum-Computer Interact. 2001, 13: 13-40. 10.1207/S15327590IJHC1301_2.
Arvidsson I: Musculoskeletal disorders in demanding computer work - with air traffic control as a model (PhD thesis). 2008, Lund University
Karlqvist LK, Hagberg M, Köster M, Wenemark M, Ånell R: Musculoskeletal symptoms among computer-assisted design (CAD) operators and evaluation of a self-assessment questionnaire. Int J Occup Environ Health. 1996, 2: 185-194.
Karlqvist L, Bernmark E, Ekenvall L, Hagberg M, Isaksson A, Rosto T: Computer mouse position as a determinant of posture, muscular load and perceived exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998, 24: 62-73.
National Research Council: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Report, workshop summary, and workshop papers. 1999, Washington, DC: National Academy Press
Ortiz-Hernandez L, Tamez-Gonzalez S, Martinez-Alcantara S, Mendez-Ramirez I: Computer use increases the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper office workers. Arch Med Res. 2003, 34: 331-342. 10.1016/S0188-4409(03)00053-5.
Bernard B, Sauter S, Fine L, Petersen M, Hales T: Job task and psychosocial risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper employees. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1994, 20: 417-426.
Aarås A, Ro O: Workload when using a mouse as an input device. Int J Hum-Computer Interact. 1997, 9: 105-118. 10.1207/s15327590ijhc0902_1.
Gustafsson E, Hagberg M: Computer mouse use in two different hand positions: exposure, comfort, exertion and productivity. Appl Ergonomics. 2003, 34: 107-113. 10.1016/S0003-6870(03)00005-X.
Dennerlein JT, Ciriello VM, Kerin KJ, Johnson PW: Fatigue in the forearm resulting from low-level repetitive ulnar deviation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 2003, 64: 799-805.
Blangsted AK, Sjøgaard G, Madeleine P, Olsen HB, Søgaard K: Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2005, 15: 138-148. 10.1016/j.jelekin.2004.10.004.
Wahlström J, Hagberg M, Johnson PW, Svensson J, Rempel D: Influence of time pressure and verbal provocation on physiological and psychological reaction during work with a computer mouse. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002, 87: 257-263. 10.1007/s00421-002-0611-7.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL: Modern epidemiology. 2008, Philadelphia: Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 3
Dainoff MJ, Aarås A, Horgen G, Konarska M, Larsen S, Thoresen M: The effect of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal, psychosocial and visual strain of VDT entry work: Organization and methodology of the international study. Int J Occup Safety Ergon. 2005, 11: 9-23.
Ohlsson K, Attewell RG, Johnsson B, Ahlm A, Skerfving S: An assessment of neck and upper extremity disorders by questionnaire and clinical examination. Ergonomics. 1994, 37: 891-897. 10.1080/00140139408963698.
Jepsen JR, Laursen LH, Larsen AI, Hagert CG: Manual strength testing in 14 upper limb muscles. A study of inter-rater reliability. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004, 75: 442-448. 10.1080/00016470410001222-1.
Jepsen JR, Laursen LH, Hagert CG, Kreiner S, Larsen AI: Diagnostic accuracy of the neurological upper limb examination I: inter-rater reproducibility of selected findings and patterns. BMC Neurol. 2006, 6: 8-10.1186/1471-2377-6-8.
Jepsen JR, Laursen LH, Hagert CG, Kreiner S, Larsen AI: Diagnostic accuracy of the neurological upper limb examination II: relation to symptoms of patterns of findings. BMC Neurol. 2006, 6: 10-10.1186/1471-2377-6-10.
Palmer K, Walker-Bone K, Linaker C, Reading I, Kellingray S, Coggon D: The Southampton examination schedule for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000, 59: 5-11. 10.1136/ard.59.1.5.