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Table 3 Summary of results of included studies

From: Anterior knee pain in younger adults as a precursor to subsequent patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a systematic review

Author, year of publication N Follow-up rate Participant characteristics at baseline Association between AKP and PFOA Other findings Quality score (0-15)
Utting et al 2005 [18] 234
(118 cases, 116
controls).
Response rate 78%
(cases 79%, controls 77%).
Cases
90%F
mean age at time of arthroplasty 67.3 years (range 44-87).
Controls:
82%F
mean age at time of arthroplasty 68.3 years (range 48-86).
Crude OR = 4.4 (95%CI 1.8, 10.6) Prior history of AKP (22% vs 6%), PF instability (14% vs 1%), and patella trauma (16% vs 6%) among cases.
No difference in mean age at onset of AKP (18.1 vs 19.4 years).
9
Kannus et al 1999 [19] 37 70% Based on 49 potentially eligible participants:
53% F
Mean age 27 years (range 15-50).
Mean duration of symptoms 16 months (SD 19).
- PFOA at follow-up (mean 6.6 years).
On plain x-ray: mild 16%, moderate 0%, severe 3%
On MRI: mild 11%, moderate 19%, severe 5%.
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 2.9%.
8
Nimon et al 1998 [20] 8 13% Based on 63 potentially eligible patients:
100%F
Mean age 15.5 years (range 10-19).
- Plain x-rays "normal" on participants imaged at follow-up (mean 16 years).
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 0%.
8
Imhoff & Boni 1989 [21] 29 19% 55%F
Mean age at diagnosis 23 years (range 7-52).
11 had a history of knee trauma.
- PFOA at follow-up (mean 23 years):
Small superior patellar osteophytes (31%), joint space narrowing/ ↑ osteophytes/subchondral sclerosis 10.3%, joint space obliteration/cystic changes 6.9%.
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 2.1%.
5
Hvid et al 1981 [22] 22 100% (?) 60%F
Mean age 27 years (range 14-44).
Mean duration of symptoms 7.6 years (range 4-16).
- No arthrosis in any participant at follow-up (mean 5.7 years).
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 0%.
11
Dexel et al 1980 [23] 25 15% 32%F
Mean age 25 years (range 15-52).
5 had a history of post-traumatic patellar chondropathy.
- Moderate or severe changes consistent with PFOA at follow-up (mean 13 years) 12%.
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 0.9%.
5
Karlson 1939 [24] 35 31% Based on 71 potential eligible patients:
0%F
11% aged <20 years, 80% 20-29, 8% 30-59.
- "very slight" arthritis deformans at follow-up (mean 5.9 years) 20%.
Estimated annual risk of PFOA 3.4%.
3
  1. AKP Anterior knee pain; F Female; OR Odds ratio; PF patellofemoral; PFOA Patellofemoral osteoarthritis; 95%CI 95 percent confidence interval