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Table 2 Prescription pain medication treatment patterns in the “any pain medication” cohort a

From: Patient characteristics, pain treatment patterns, and incidence of total joint replacement in a US population with osteoarthritis

Treatment pattern n (%)
Historic use of prescription pain medication prior to index date b
 NSAID 906 909 (45.5)
 Opioid 1 248 379 (62.6)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid 497 987 (25.0)
Index pain medication c
 NSAID 596 624 (29.9)
 Opioid 1 161 806 (58.3)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid 323 459 (16.2)
Multiple pain medications at index
 NSAID and opioid 71 632 (3.6)
 NSAID and intra-articular corticosteroid 13 278 (0.7)
 Opioid and intra-articular corticosteroid 6286 (0.3)
 NSAID, opioid, and intra-articular corticosteroid 830 (0.0)
Subsequent pain medication dispensing within 7 days after index date
 NSAID followed by an opioid 22 397 (1.1)
 NSAID followed by an intra-articular corticosteroid 3924 (0.2)
 NSAID followed by an opioid and an intra-articular corticosteroid 357 (0.0)
 Opioid followed by an NSAID 18 944 (1.0)
 Opioid followed by an intra-articular corticosteroid 6383 (0.3)
 Opioid followed by an NSAID and an intra-articular corticosteroid 456 (0.0)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an NSAID 4505 (0.2)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an opioid 5370 (0.3)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an NSAID and an opioid 469 (0.0)
Subsequent pain medication dispensing at any time after index date
 NSAID followed by an opioid 342 430 (17.2)
 NSAID followed by an intra-articular corticosteroid 147 301 (7.4)
 NSAID followed by an opioid and an intra-articular corticosteroid 116 274 (5.8)
 Opioid followed by an NSAID 409 829 (20.6)
 Opioid followed by an intra-articular corticosteroid 259 299 (13.0)
 Opioid followed by an NSAID and an intra-articular corticosteroid 147 148 (7.4)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an NSAID 96 477 (4.8)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an opioid 154 120 (7.7)
 Intra-articular corticosteroid followed by an NSAID and an opioid 72 840 (3.7)
  1. NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. aN = 1 992 670
  3. bHistoric use included patients with > 1 dispensing of pain medication use prior to the index date that did not meet the other inclusion criteria for index pain medication exposure, most notably the requirement to have a 365-day baseline history period prior to the index date
  4. cIndex pain medication represents the first qualifying dispensing of any pain medication including NSAIDs, opioids, and intra-articular corticosteroids during the study period