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Table 2 The explained variance (Adjusted R2) and associations between pain intensity as outcome and predictors (entered in 5 blocks) explored by linear regression analysis, (n = 941)

From: The association between different outcome measures and prognostic factors in patients with neck pain: a cohort study

Blocks of predictors   Block 1 Block 1–2 Block 1–3 Block 1–4 (Final model) Block 1-5a
Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2
0.19 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.26
Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI)
Patient previous course of pain (n, %)
 Single episode Block 1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Episodic pain 6.66 (1.76 to 11.55) 5.16 (0.32 to 9.99) 5.10 (0.26 to 9.95) 5.14 (0.28 to 10.00) 3.27 (-1.49 to 8.03)
 Mild pain/recovering 8.96 (2.57 to 14.82) 7.44 (1.40 to 13.49) 7.30 (1.24 to 13.37) 7.27 (1.20 to 13.35) 5.71 (-0.21 to 11.63)
 Fluctuating pain 17.10 (12.14 to 22.06) 13.96 (8.98 to 18.94) 13.78 (8.79 to 18.78) 13.71 (8.71 to 18.71) 9.85 (4.86 to 14.83)
 Moderate/severe pain 25.43 (16.12 to 34.74) 21.43 (12.21 to 30.66) 21.09 (11.83 to 30.35) 21.01 (11.74 to 30.29) 12.45 (3.09 to 21.81)
 Neither/ Unsure 10.17 (1.16 to 19.17) 10.77 (1.84 to 19.70) 10.57 (1.63 to 19.52) 10.55 (1.60 to 19.51) 8.37 (-0.21 to 16.95)
Patient expected course of pain (n, %)
 Single episode Block 2 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Episodic pain 9.40 (5.71 to 13.10) 8.63 (5.00 to 12.56) 8.62 (4.98 to 12.25) 8.57 (4.91 to 12.23) 7.10 (3.50 to 10.69)
 Mild pain/recovering 8.06 (3.11 to 13.01) 7.04 (2.17 to 11.91) 7.15 (2.26 to 12.04) 7.13 (2.21 to 12.04) 6.15 (1.32 to 10.99)
 Fluctuating pain 12.57 (8.18 to 16.98) 11.07 (6.73 to 15.41) 10.91 (6.54 to 15.27) 10.94 (6.48 to 15.40) 9.52 (5.14 to 13.91)
 Moderate/severe pain 28.84 (10.96 to 46.74) 27.22 (9.72 to 44.71) 27.80 (10.25 to 45.35) 27.71 (10.09 to 45.33) 24.07 (6.86 to 41.29)
 Neither/ Unsure 7.52 (2.86 to 12.19) 6.22 (1.62 to 10.82) 6.26 (1.65 to 10.86) 6.26 (1.64 to 10.88) 4.49 (-0.03 to 9.01)
Radiating pain to shoulder and/or elbow (Ref.: yes)   -0.50 (-3.60 to 2.60) -0.35 (-3.47 to 2.77) -0.31 (-3.43 to 2.81) -1.54 (-4.59 to 1.51)
Number of MSK pain sites   1.91 (1.28 to 2.55) 1.69 (0.66 to 2.73) 1.69 (0.66 to 2.72) 1.30 (0.29 to 2.31)
Education level
 Low Block 3    Ref Ref Ref
 Medium    -3.27 (-8.82 to 2.27) -3.24 (-8.79 to 2.32) -3.28 (-8.68 to 2.13)
 High    -3.22 (-8.70 to 2.27) -3.20 (-8.69 to 2.29) -3.52 (-8.86 to 1.82)
Physical leisure activity (Ref.: yes)    -1.61 (-7.67 to 4.44) -1.57 (-7.64 to 4.49) -2.74 (-8.87 to 3.19)
Physical leisure activity#Number of MSK pain-sites    0.29 (-0.88 to 1.45) 0.28 (-0.89 to 1.45) 0.46 (-0.68 to 1.61)
Consultation-type
 First-time consultation Block 4     Ref Ref
 Follow-up consultation     1.60 (-2.09 to 5.29) 2.68 (-0.95 to 6.30)
 Maintenance consultation     1.03 (-2.38 to 4.45) 3.13 (-0.27 to 6.53)
Baseline pain intensity Block 5a      2.23 (1.64 to 2.82)
  1. Note: The 95% C.I not including 0 are marked in bold, The NRS pain intensity is transformed to a 0–100 scale for both baseline and outcome