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Table 5 Linear regression analysis showing factors associated with disability (OSD scores) in patients with LBP

From: A cross-sectional hospital-based study of correlates of disability in patients with chronic low back pain in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variable Beta (β) 95% CI p-value Beta (β) 95% CI p-value
Age (38 – 47)
 18—27 0.09 0.29 – 10.25 0.038    
 28—37 -0.04 -3.43 – 1.10 0.311    
 48—57 0.08 -0.12 – 3.86 0.065 0.09 0.33—3.95 0.021*
 58 +  -0.01 -2.20 – 2.11 0.745    
Gender (Male)
 Female 0.35 5.92 – 9.38 0.000 -0.35 -9.59—(-6.15) 0.000**
Exercise (No exercise)
 Frequent exercise -0.08 -3.67 – 0.04 0.055    
Cigarette smoking (No smoking)
 1 to 10 cigarettes -0.09 -4.39 – (-0.08) 0.042 -0.11 -4.91—(-0.97) 0.004*
 More than 11 cigarettes 0.12 0.94 – 5.56 0.006    
Type of work (Semi-sedentary)
 Sedentary 0.07 -0.46 – 4.97 0.108    
 Manual work 0.09 0.10 – 2.09 0.032    
Sitting posture (Backward inclination)
 Straight back 0.08 -0.18 – 5.70 0.065    
 Stooped 0.06 -0.57 – 4.06 0.140    
 Forward inclined -0.08 -3.81 – 0.01 0.051    
LBP duration (less than 3-months)
 3-months and above (chronic) 0.19 2.83 – 7.13 0.000    
LBP severity (Mild)
 Moderate severity 0.08 -0.05 – 4.06 0.055    
 Severe LBP 0.04 -1.11 – 3.56 0.303    
Illnes_Behaviour_Score 0.12 0.03 – 0.19 0.006 -0.14 -0.26—(-0.01) 0.038*
Fear avoidance beliefs
 Work subscale 0.20 0.17 – 0.42 0.000 0.34 0.32—0.72 0.000**
 Physical activity subscale 0.19 0.27 – 0.68 0.000    
  1. Italics – variables excluded from the equation,
  2. Bold – variables included in the multivariate analysis (significant at p < 2),
  3. *variables significant at p < 0.05 in the multivariate model,
  4. **variables significant at p < 0.001 in the multivariate model