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Table 2 Secondary outcome: joint-specific questionnaires over 12 weeks

From: Diclofenac–hyaluronate conjugate (diclofenac etalhyaluronate) intra-articular injection for hip, ankle, shoulder, and elbow osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

Joint Joint-specific questionnaires LSM change from baseline (95% CI)
DF-HA Placebo Difference
Hip N 46 44  
(WOMACa) Pain subscore (mm) −26.5 (−35.1 to −18.0) −17.3 (−26.8 to −7.8) −9.2 (−17.1 to − 1.4)
Stiffness subscore (mm) −27.7 (−36.3 to −19.1) −20.0 (− 29.6 to − 10.4) −7.8 (− 15.5 to 0.0)
Physical function subscore (mm) −27.3 (−35.7 to −18.8) −17.4 (−26.8 to −8.0) −9.9 (−17.5 to −2.3)
Total score (mm) −27.1 (−35.3 to −18.8) −17.4 (−26.5 to −8.2) −9.7 (−17.2 to −2.2)
Ankle N 30 30  
(SAFE-Qb) Pain and pain-related 21.3 (15.7 to 26.8) 21.3 (15.3 to 27.3) −0.1 (−6.6 to 6.5)
Physical functioning and daily living 16.7 (11.0 to 22.5) 13.1 (6.8 to 19.3) 3.7 (−3.1 to 10.5)
Social functioning 9.9 (2.5 to 17.4) 7.7 (−0.4 to 15.8) 2.2 (−6.8 to 11.3)
Shoe-related 10.6 (3.6 to 17.6) 4.4 (−2.8 to 11.6) 6.2 (−2.3 to 14.7)
General health and well-being 14.9 (6.5 to 23.3) 14.7 (5.4 to 24.0) 0.2 (−9.9 to 10.3)
Sports activityc 4.1 (−19.5 to 27.6) −10.7 (−67.7 to 46.4) 14.7 (−38.5 to 67.9)
Shoulder N 45 45  
(Shoulder36b) Pain 0.38 (0.23 to 0.53) 0.41 (0.25 to 0.57) −0.03 (−0.23 to 0.16)
Range of motion 0.44 (0.28 to 0.60) 0.44 (0.27 to 0.60) 0.00 (−0.20 to 0.20)
Muscle strength 0.60 (0.41 to 0.80) 0.53 (0.33 to 0.72) 0.08 (−0.17 to 0.32)
General health 0.28 (0.13 to 0.42) 0.36 (0.21 to 0.51) −0.09 (− 0.27 to 0.10)
Activities of daily living 0.45 (0.29 to 0.61) 0.39 (0.23 to 0.56) 0.05 (− 0.15 to 0.26)
Ability to play sports 0.42 (0.20 to 0.63) 0.49 (0.27 to 0.71) −0.07 (− 0.35 to 0.21)
Elbow N 25 25  
(PREE-Ja) Pain score −12.7 (−17.5 to −7.9) − 15.4 (−20.2 to − 10.6) 2.7 (−2.4 to 7.8)
Function score −5.2 (− 10.0 to − 0.3) −9.7 (−14.4 to − 5.0) 4.5 (−0.2 to 9.3)
Specific activities − 9.7 (− 20.5 to 1.1) −21.2 (−31.7 to −10.8) 11.5 (1.1 to 22.0)
Usual activities −5.0 (−9.2 to −0.9) −7.3 (−11.3 to −3.3) 2.3 (−1.8 to 6.4)
Total score −17.0 (−26.5 to −7.4) −25.1 (−34.4 to −15.9) 8.2 (−1.4 to 17.8)
  1. LSM least-squares means, CI confidence interval, DF-HA diclofenac etalhyaluronate, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis 3.1 index, SAFE-Q Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire, PREE-J Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation, Japanese Version
  2. aHigher scores indicate more pain or functional disability, and lower scores indicate less pain or functional disability
  3. bLower scores indicate more pain or functional disability, and higher scores indicate less pain or functional disability
  4. cThe questionnaires were required to be answered only by patients who engaged in sports activity (DF-HA: n = 11, Placebo: n = 3)