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Table 2 Comparison of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) between chronic TMD patients and healthy controls

From: Poorer sleep quality in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders compared to healthy controls

  Chronic TMD patients (n = 503) Healthy control (n = 180) p-value
Parameter n (%) or Mean ± SD n (%) or Mean ± SD  
PSQI
Component 1: Subjective sleep quality (0–3) a 1.50 ± 0.79 0.59 ± 0.61 <  0.001***
Component 2: Sleep latency (0–3) a 0.83 ± 0.97 0.42 ± 0.72 < 0.001***
Component 3: Sleep duration (0–3) a 0.72 ± 0.91 0.61 ± 0.79 0.035*
Component 4: Sleep efficiency (0–3) a 0.38 ± 0.79 0.11 ± 0.36 <  0.001***
Component 5: Sleep disturbances (0–3) a 1.20 ± 0.63 0.45 ± 0.60 < 0.001***
Component 6: Use of sleep medication (0–3) a 0.15 ± 0.54 0.04 ± 0.28 0.001**
Component 7: Daytime dysfunction (0–3) a 1.41 ± 0.90 1.79 ± 1.04 <  0.001***
PSQI global score (0–21) a 6.25 ± 2.77 3.84 ± 2.29 < 0.001***
Poor sleeper (PSQI global score ≥ 5) b 286 (56.9) 40 (22.2) < 0.001***
  1. TMD temporomandibular disorder, SD standard deviation
  2. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. *: p-value < 0.05, **: p-value < 0.01, ***: p-value < 0.001
  3. a: The results were obtained via t- test. b: The results were obtained from χ2 test