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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Measurement properties of smartphone applications for the measurement of neck range of motion: a systematic review and meta analyses

Study Country Study design Sample size Participant characteristics
Mean (SD)
Mean [range]
M/F
Cause of neck pain and pain characteristics ROM tested Smart app details
Pourahmadi et al., 2018 [26] Iran Cross sectional study 40 Age: 31.12 (6.38)
Gender: 20 /20
Non-specific, non-traumatic neck pain
Pain Intensity
VAS - 3.71 ± 1.06
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation ‘Goniometer Pro[G-pro]’ app (version 2.7). It works like a digital gravity-based inclinometer- iPhone 7 uses built-in accelerometer
Palsson et al., 2019 [30] Denmark Cross sectional study 30 Age: 2[(21-37]
Gender: 19/11
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, and rotation ‘Balacy’ app (beta version, MEDEI, Aalborg, Denmark) custom made application
Stenneberg et al., 2018 [27] Netherlands Cross sectional and repeated measures design 30 for validity study,
26 for reliability study
Age: -
Validity study: 53.4.
Reliability study: 45.2
Gender: -
Validity Study: 11/19
Reliability study: 7/19
NR
NDI (median, range):
Validity stud y- 9.5 (1–26)
Reliability study- 11.4 (3–27)
Pain duration:>  1 week
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. ‘3D range of motion’ custom made application - iPhone 4 s uses built-in gyroscope and accelerometer
Guidetti et al., 2017 [13] Italy Descriptive correlational study 23 Age: 26 (5)
Gender:13/10
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. ‘Compass’ app - iPhone 5c uses built-in accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer
Ullucci et al., 2019 [33] USA NR 38 Age: 23.8 (1.2)
Gender: 19/19
Asymptomatic
NA
Upper cervical spine rotation ‘Clinometer’ app- Android and iPhone
Ghorbani et al., 2020 [10] Iran NR 20 Age: 25.9 [9-33]
Gender: 7/13
NR
Pain duration: >  4 weeks
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. ‘Clinometer’ app - iPhone 6 s uses built-in gyroscope and accelerometer
Chang et al., 2019 [28] Taiwan Two stage repeated measures design 41 Age: 36.9 (7.6)
Gender: 9/32
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. ‘GPS status & Toolbox app’ - iPhone uses built-in gyroscope and magnetometer
Satpute et al., 2019 [12] India Repeated measures reliability design 32 Age: 40.53
Gender: 17/15
Asymptomatic
NA
Upper cervical spine rotation with FRT, and with C0-C2 test ‘Compass’ app- iPhone 6 uses built-in gyroscope, magnetometer and accelerometer
Quek et al., 2014 [31] Australia NR 21 Age: 31 (9.1)
Gender: 11/20
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation Custom made app- Android phone (Samsung Galaxy S3) uses built-in accelerometer and gyroscope
Monreal et al., 2021 [29] USA Repeated measure, correlational design 50 Age: 21.46 (2.78)
Gender: 15/35
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation ‘Clinometer’ app - Smartphone
Rodríguez-Sanza et al., 2019 [11] Spain Cross sectional study Validity study: 25
Reliability study: 10
Age: -
Validity study: 25 (6.72) [18-53]
Reliability study: NR
Gender: -
Validity study: 11/14
Reliability: NR
NR
Duration of neck pain: Mean (SD) (months)
Validity study: 70.48 (67.25)
Upper cervical spine: flexion and extension
Lower cervical spine: flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation
‘Clinometer’ app- Xiaomi A1 uses built-in accelerometers and a gyroscope.
‘Compass’ app-Xiaomi A1 uses built-in accelerometer.
Tousignant-Laflamme et al., 2013 [32] Canada Descriptive correlational design 28 Age: 23 (6) [19-43]
Gender: 9/19
Asymptomatic
NA
Neck flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation ‘Clinometer’ app (Peter Breitling, Version 3.3)- iPhone uses built-in accelerometers
‘Compass’ app- iPhone uses built-in magnetometer.
  1. SD standard deviation, M male, F female, VAS visual analogue scale, NDI neck disability index, NR not reported, NA non applicable, FRT flexion-rotation test