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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of NVCFs group and Control group

From: Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting the probability of new vertebral compression fractures after vertebral augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

  Training cohort(n = 403) Validation cohort(n = 159)
Control group(n = 354) NVCFs group(n = 49) P Control group(n = 142) NVCFs group(n = 17) P
Gender,n(%)
 Male 61 (17.23%) 10 (20.41%) 0.584 39 (27.46%) 4 (23.53%) 0.730
 Female 293 (82.77%) 39 (79.59%)   103 (72.54%) 13 (76.47%)  
Age,years,n(%)
  < 60 22 (6.21%) 1 (2.04%) 0.003 6 (4.23%) 1 (5.88%) 0.006
 60 ~ 70 140 (39.55%) 12 (24.49%)   62 (43.66%) 3 (17.65%)  
 70 ~ 80 144 (40.68%) 20 (40.82%)   54 (38.03%) 5 (29.41%)  
  > 80 48 (13.56%) 16 (32.65%)   20 (14.08%) 8 (47.06%)  
Population,n(%)
 Han 316 (89.27%) 46 (93.88%) 0.317 124 (87.32%) 13 (76.47%) 0.221
 Hui 38 (10.73%) 3 (6.12%)   18 (12.68%) 4 (23.53%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 23.82 ± 3.55 23.14 ± 3.36 0.208 23.21 ± 3.86 24.13 ± 3.38 0.351
HU values 123.72 ± 38.44 116.12 ± 29.44 0.108 119.91 ± 36.90 111.06 ± 28.11 0.249
History of diabetes,n(%)
 No 320 (90.40%) 46 (93.88%) 0.429 130 (91.55%) 15 (88.24%) 0.649
 Yes 34 (9.60%) 3 (6.12%)   12 (8.45%) 2 (11.76%)  
History of hypertension,n(%)
 No 195 (55.08%) 23 (46.94%) 0.284 81 (57.04%) 11 (64.71%) 0.545
 Yes 159 (44.92%) 26 (53.06%)   61 (42.96%) 6 (35.29%)  
History of fractures,n(%)
 No 309 (87.29%) 36 (73.47%) 0.010 133 (93.66%) 16 (94.12%) 0.942
 Yes 45 (12.71%) 13 (26.53%)   9 (6.34%) 1 (5.88%)  
Augmentation segment,n(%)
 T4-T9 35 (9.89%) 2 (4.08%) 0.065 17 (11.97%) 0 0.307
 T10-L2 192 (54.24%) 35 (71.43%)   85 (59.86%) 11 (64.71%)  
 L3-L5 127 (35.88%) 12 (24.49%)   40 (28.17%) 6 (35.29%)  
Surgical method,n(%)    0.396    0.325
 PVP 194 (54.80%) 30 (61.22%)   74 (52.11%) 11 (64.71%)  
 PKP 160 (45.20%) 19 (38.78%)   68 (47.89%) 6 (35.30%)  
Bone cement dosage, ml 4.02 ± 1.13 4.43 ± 0.88 0.014 3.81 ± 0.87 4.56 ± 0.77 0.001
Bone cement leakage,n(%)
 No 238 (67.23%) 20 (40.82%) < 0.001 97 (68.31%) 5 (29.41%) 0.002
 Yes 116 (32.77%) 29 (59.18%)   45 (31.69%) 12 (70.59%)  
Bone cement dispersion,n(%)
 No 102 (28.81%) 33 (67.35%) < 0.001 38 (26.76%) 9 (52.94%) 0.025
 Yes 252 (71.19%) 16 (32.65%)   104 (73.24%) 8 (47.06%)  
Contact between bone cement and endplate,n(%)
 No 53 (14.97%) 28 (57.14%) < 0.001 24 (16.90%) 5 (29.41%) 0.207
 Yes 301 (85.03%) 21 (42.86%)   118 (83.10%) 12 (70.59%)  
Available anti-osteoporotic treatment,n(%)
 No 95 (26.84%) 36 (73.47%) < 0.001 40 (28.17%) 13 (76.47%) < 0.001
 Yes 259 (73.16%) 13 (26.53%)   102 (71.83%) 4 (23.53%)  
Pre-op AVH, mm 14.73 ± 3.08 14.69 ± 2.91 0.936 14.89 ± 3.26 14.74 ± 2.62 0.852
Post-op AVH, mm 17.66 ± 3.03 17.98 ± 2.93 0.482 17.70 ± 3.19 18.08 ± 2.17 0.630
AVHRR(%) 9.70 ± 3.45 10.69 ± 2.45 0.053 9.28 ± 3.03 10.72 ± 2.42 0.061
Pre-op Cobb angle(°) 26.97 ± 5.95 26.01 ± 4.69 0.278 28.33 ± 6.22 27.14 ± 4.25 0.444
Post-op Cobb angle(°) 17.32 ± 3.70 15.27 ± 4.07 < 0.001 17.64 ± 3.97 15.34 ± 5.92 0.035
Cobb angle restoration(%) 34.49 ± 12.33 40.55 ± 13.86 0.002 36.33 ± 14.02 43.64 ± 17.06 0.049