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Table 2 Uni- and multivariate analyses of risk factors for hallux rigidus, adjusted for age and sex

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for hallux rigidus: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Univariate Multivariate
Variable OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age (65) 1.51 (0.96–2.35) 0.072   
Sex (female) 1.18 (0.81–1.74) 0.39   
BMI (25) 1.49 (1.01–2.19) *0.045 1.10 (0.72–1.70) 0.66
Knee osteoarthritis 2.32 (1.59–3.40) * < .001 2.08 (1.36–3.17) * < .001
Hallux valgus 4.03 (2.75-5.91) * < .001 3.96 (2.63-5.96) * < .001
Heberden's node 1.30 (0.86–1.97) 0.22   
Vertebral fracture 1.49 (0.91–2.44) 0.12   
Osteoporosis 1.26 (0.84–1.89) 0.27   
Hypertension 1.24 (0.86–1.79) 0.25   
Diabetes mellitus 1.86 (1.04–3.33) *0.036 1.87 (0.99–3.52) 0.053
Hyperlipidemia 0.87 (0.59–1.26) 0.45   
Gout attack 2.83 (1.04–7.67) *0.041 3.16 (1.05–9.52) *0.041
Smoking 1.03 (0.64–1.65) 0.91   
Alcohol 0.91 (0.62–1.34) 0.64   
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index
  2. *p < .05