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Table 2 Inter-observer reliability of physical examination tests in patients diagnosed as acute soft tissue shoulder injury

From: Interrater reliability of physical examination tests in the acute phase of shoulder injuries

Test Valid N Cohen’s Kappa (95% CI) Agreement
%
Inability to abduct > 90°a 42 0.90 (0.77–1.03) 95%
Painful arc 42 0.56 (0.36–0.76) 70%
Abduction strength 47 0.82 (0.64–0.99) 91%
Resisted abduction pain 48 0.50 (0.25–0.74) 75%
Hawkins` test 45 0.25 (0.01–0.48) 72%
External rotation reduced by ≥20°a 40 0.68 (0.42–0.93) 88%
External rotation strength 48 0.70 (0.48–0.92) 88%
Small finger test 48 0.51 (0.24–0.79) 81%
External rotation lag sign 39 0.40 (0.07–0.74) 89%
Belly-Press 45 0.63 (0.25–1.01) 93%
Internal rotation lag sign ¤ 48 1 (1.00–1.00) 100%
Internal rotation lag sign anteriorly b 46 96%
   Linear weighted kappa (95% CI)  
Internal rotation AROM (4 levels) 48 0.52 (0.29–0.74) NA
  1. aDerived from registered number of degrees of active range of motion; ¤ In 2 patients the first examiner registered “positive” and the second “not possible”; b The second assessors did not register any positive test