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Table 4 Medical history characteristics for periprosthetic joint infection and the outcomes of meta-analysis

From: Patients’ risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection in primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of 40 studies

Comparisons Number of
studies
RR (95% CI) Heterogeneity
I2, p-value*
p-value#
1. DM vs. non-DM 15 1.64 (1.25–2.21) 93.5%, < 0.001  
1.1 Location     0.079
 North America 7 1.28 (0.79–2.07) 96.5%, < 0.001  
 Asia-Pacific 4 1.84 (1.34–2.53) 0.0%, 0.434  
 Europe 4 2.59 (1.17–5.74) 68.8%, 0.022  
1.2 Follow-up years     0.253
  ≥ 3 5 1.24 (0.97–1.57) 38.9%, 0.162  
  < 3 10 1.94 (1.28–2.93) 94.1%, < 0.001  
1.3 Design     0.942
 Prospective 5 1.56 (1.09–2.25) 47.9%, 0.104  
 Retrospective 10 1.64 (1.09–2.46) 94.7%, < 0.001  
1.4 Confounders adjusted     0.387
 Multivariate 9 1. 45 (1.00–2.11) 96.1%, < 0.001  
 Univariate 6 2.01 (1.28–3.16) 50.1%, 0.075  
2. AVN vs. non 2 1.65 (1.07–2.56) 53.9%, 0.141  
3. femoral neck fracture vs. non 2 1.75 (1.39–2.20) 0.0%, 0.378  
4. RA vs. non 8 1.37 (1.23–1.54) 0.0%, 0.621  
5. CVD vs. non 8 1.34 (1.03–1.74) 61.8%, 0.010  
6. Chronic pulmonary disease vs. non 2 1.22 (1.08–1.37) 0.0%, 0.897  
7. Neurological diseases vs. non 3 1.19 (1.05–1.35) 27.8%, 0.250  
8. Opioid use vs. non 3 1.53 (1.35–1.73) 49.6%, 0.137  
9. IDA vs. non 2 1.15 (1.13–1.17) 95%, < 0.001  
10. Dysplasia or dislocation vs. non 2 0.65 (0.45–0.93) 0.0%, 0.885  
11. OA vs. non 4 0.70 (0.62–0.79) 0.0%, 0.479  
12. Previous joint surgery vs. non 4 2.69 (0.67–10.72) 83.6%, < 0.001  
13. Renal disease vs. non 4 1.33 (0.50–3.53) 98.7%, < 0.001  
14. Hypertension vs. non 3 1.17 (0.94–1.46) 34.6%, 0.217  
15. Cancer vs. non 2 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 0.0%, 0.486  
16. Steroid use vs. non 6 1.80 (0.89–3.63) 9.2%, 0.357  
17. Liver disease vs. non 2 1.73 (0.86–3.51) 94.0%, < 0.001  
  1. p-value* for Heterogeneity; p-value# for meta regression; AVN Avascular necrosis, CVD Cardiac vascular disease, DM Diabetes, IDA Iron-deficiency anemia, OA Osteoarthritis, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, IDA Iron-deficiency anemia