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Table 3 Non- modifiable risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection and the outcomes of meta-analysis

From: Patients’ risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection in primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of 40 studies

Comparisons Number of studies RR (95% CI) Heterogeneity
I2, p-value*
p-value#
1. Gender 19 1.17 (1.03–1.32) 83.9%, < 0.001  
1.1 Location     0.804
 North America 7 1.16 (1.02–1.32) 68.8%, 0.004  
 Asia-Pacific 5 1.22 (0.80–1.87) 67.7%, 0.015  
 Europe 7 1.13 (0.78–1.63) 88.5%, < 0.001  
1.2 Follow-up years     0.787
 ≥ 3 6 1.35 (1.13–1.62) 91.0%, < 0.001  
 < 3 13 1.16 (1.00–1.33) 56.6%, 0.006  
1.3 Study design     0.078
Prospective 7 1.39 (1.13–1.72) 76.1%, < 0.001  
 Retrospective 12 1.04 (0.89–1.23) 75.4%, < 0.001  
1.4 Confounders adjusted     0.601
 Multivariate 15 1.15 (1.01–1.32) 87.4%, < 0.001  
 Univariate 4 1.30 (0.93–1.81) 0.0%, 0.841  
1.5 Quality     0.684
 < 7 8 1.23 (0.98–1.55) 44.3%, 0.083  
 ≥ 7 11 1.14 (0.97–1.33) 89.9%, < 0.001  
2. Age 7 0.85 (0.71–1.01) 59.0%, 0.023  
  1. p-value* for Heterogeneity; p-value# for meta regression