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Table 2 Mean (SD), paired t-test values, and Cohens’ d effect sizes (n = 524)

From: Targeting self-efficacy more important than dysfunctional behavioral cognitions in patients with longstanding chronic low back pain; a longitudinal study

  Pre-treatment Post-treatment 1 yr FU Pre versus Post Post versus 1 yr FU
t(1,523) R2 d t(1,523) R2
Primary outcome
 Functional status 41.1 (14.1) 34.5 (14.5) 27.2 (16.4) 12.37 0.23 0.59 11.60 0.21
Secondary outcomes
 Self-efficacy 32.4 (10.8) 43.5 (10.0) 43.1 (12.0) −24.21 0.53 1.06 0.66 0.001
Dysfunctional behavioral cognitions
 Catastrophizing 22.9 (8.8) 14.3 (7.0) 12.3 (7.5) 23.73 0.52 1.08 6.68 0.08
 Fear of movement 39.6 (6.4) 32.7 (6.9) 31.8 (7.3) 23.01 0.50 1.06 3.11 0.02
  1. Values in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. FU 1 yr 1-year follow up; Pre pre-treatment assessment; Post post-treatment assessment
  3. t t-value paired t-test; d Cohens’ d effect size
  4. R2 treatment effect