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Table 3 Qualitative overview of incidence of WMSDs in secondary industries of Europe

From: Prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in secondary industries of 21st century Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, study design, period of measurement, industry & country Examination method, examination tools & response rate Demographic characteristics WSMD &
Incidence cases/ Incidence ratio
Overall incidence ratio
Chen et al. 2006 [44]
Cohort: 1996–2001
Food and organic products, petrochemical, metals, and automotive industry – UK
Occupational physicians
Not further specified
75% of occupational physicians of OPRA
Not retrievable Upper limb = 1827/million persons-year; FOM
Neck/Back = 792/million persons-year; FOM
Lower limb = 121/million persons-year; FOM
Upper limb = 1945/million persons-year; PRP
Neck/Back = 517/million persons-year; PRP
Lower limb = 49/million persons-year; PRP
Upper limb = 5618/million persons-year; MAP
Neck/Back = 1886/million persons-year; MAP
Lower limb = 317/million persons-year; MAP
Could not be calculated
Cherry et al. 2000 [47]
Cohort: 1996–2001
Food and organic products, petrochemical, metals, and automotive industry – UK
Occupational physicians
Not further specifie
75% of occupational physicians of OPRA
Not mentioned Hand/Wrist/Arm = 708; FOM
Hand/Wrist/Arm = 960; PRP
Hand/Wrist/Arm = 1092; MM
Hand/Wrist/Arm = 1164; AM
Lumbar Spine/Trunk = 384; FOM
Lumbar Spine/Trunk = 276; PRP
Lumbar Spine/Trunk = 300; MM
Lumbar Spine/Trunk = 684; AM
Elbow = 264; FOM
Elbow = 348; PRP
Elbow = 348; MM
Elbow = 516; AM
Shoulder = 300; AM
Could not be calculated
Cherry et al. 2001 [46]
Cohort: October 1997–September 2000
Food and organic products, petrochemical, metals, and automotive industry - UK and Scotland
Rheumatologists
Not further specified
80% of the society’s membership of rheumatologists.
Not mentioned Upper Limb = 690; FOM
Upper Limb = 144; PRP
Upper Limb = 228; MM
Upper Limb = 201; AM
Lower Limb = 57; FOM
Lower Limb = /; PRP
Lower Limb = 36; MM
Lower Limb = 12; AM
Neck/Back = 192; FOM
Neck/Back = 51; PRP
Neck/Back = 30; MM
Neck/Back = 12; AM
Could not be calculated
Cherry et al. 2002 [45]
Cohort: 1996–2001
Food and organic material manufacturing, petrochemical, rubber and plastics manufacturing, metallic and automotive products manufacturing - UK and Scotland
Occupational physicians
Not further specified
Not mentioned
Not mentioned Upper limb F = 217/million persons-year; FOM
Upper limb F = 342/million persons-year; PRP
Upper limb F = 598/million persons-year; MAP
Back F = 48/million persons-year; FOM
Back F = 172/million persons-year; MAP
Upper limb M = 106/million persons-year; FOM
Upper limb M = 104/million persons-year; PRP
Upper limb M = 443/million persons-year; MAP
Back M = 79/million persons-year; FOM
Back M = 42/million persons-year; PRP
Back M = 153/million persons-year; MAP
Lower Limb M = 28/million persons-year; MAP
Could not be calculated
Descatha et al. 2007 [48]
Cohort: 1996–2000
Shoe industry – France
Occupational physician
Interview
Physical examination
66%
T = 166
T = 66.3%; <  45 years
T = 33.7%; ≥ 45 years
F = 60.8%
M = 39.2%
UWMSD
F = 0.238; 1996–1997
M = 0.296; 1996–1997
T < 45y = 0.23; 1996–1997
T ≥ 45 years = 0.33; 1996–1997
F = 0,08; 1997–2000
M = 0.08; 1997–2000
T < 45y = 0.08; 1997–2000
T ≥ 45 years = 0.09; 1997–2000
0.26; 1996–1997
0.08; 1997–2000
Ha et al. 2009 [51]
Cross-sectional: April 2002–April 200
Food and drink, garment, shoe and leather, manufacture of wood and wood products, manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products, publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media, chemical, manufacture of rubber and plastic products, manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products, manufacture of basic metals, manufacture of fabricated metal products manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified, manufacture of electrical and optical equipment, manufacture of motor vehicles, manufacture of other transport equipment, manufacture of furniture and wood, recycling industry – France
Neurologists
Occupational physicians
Physical examinatio
17.4% of the occupational physicians
F = 113; FDI
F = 12; GI
F = 28; SLI
F = 6; WW
F = 12; PPP
F = 9; PPR
F = 2; CI
F = 45; PRP
F = 2; NMM
F = 6; BM
F = 11; FMP
F = 26; EON
F = 69; EO
F = 2; MM
F = 2; MOT
F = 45; FWI
F = 0; R
M = 182; FDI
M = 1; GI
M = 8; SLI
M = 24; WW
M = 52; PPP
M = 17; PPR
M = 8; CI
M = 84; PRP
M = 22; NMM
M = 23; BM
M = 91; FMP
M = 89; EON
M = 89; EO
M = 63; MM
M = 91; MOT
M = 57; FWI
M = 7; R
Carpal tunnel syndrome
F = 38; FDI
F = 13; GI
F = 30; SLI
F = 1; WW
F = 1; PPP
F = 5; PPR
F = 12; CI
F = 6; PRP
F = 0; NMM
F = 3; BM
F = 7; FMP
F = 0; EON
F = 23; EO
F = 12; MM
F = 0; MOT
F = 9; FWI
F = 1; R
M = 22; FDI
M = 1; GI
M = 11; SLI
M = 6; WW
M = 1; PPP
M = 2; PPR
M = 2; CI
M = 5; PRP
M = 0; NMM
M = 6; BM
M = 15; FMP
M = 7; EON
M = 8; EO
M = 10; MM
M = 0; MOT
M = 9; FWI
M = 0; R
Could not be calculated
Häkkänen et al. 2001 [49]
Cohort: January 1987–September 199
Transport industry – Finland
Occupational physicians
Physical examination
Not mentioned
T = 364
F = 55
M = 309
Upper Limb F = 0.2
Neck/Shoulder F = 0.35
Lower Back F = 0.24
Upper Limb M = 0.11
Neck/Shoulder M = 0.10
Lower Back M = 0.19
Upper limb = 0.13
Neck/Shoulder = 0.14
Lower Back = 0.19
Leclerc et al. 2001 [52]
Cohort: 1993—1994
1996–1997
Electrical, textile, food, and packaging industry – France
Self-report
Occupational health physician
Self-Administered Questionnaire
Physical examination
42.11%
T = 247; EO
T = 63; TI
T = 143; FI
T = 103; P
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = 0.04; EO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = 0.06; TI
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = 0.05; FI
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = 0.03; P
Lateral Epicondylitis = 0.06; EO
Lateral Epicondylitis = 0.03; TI
Lateral Epicondylitis = 0.04; FI
Lateral Epicondylitis = 0.03; P
Wrist Tendinitis = 0.01; EO
Wrist Tendinitis = 0.02; TI
Wrist Tendinitis = 0.03; FI
Wrist Tendinitis = 0.03; P
Could not be calculated
Monaco et al. 2019 [50]
Retrospective cohort: January 2012–December 2015
Transport industry – Italy
Not mentioned
Reviewing medical records of health surveillance visits
Not mentioned
T = 171
T = 78 (45.6%); 25–34 years
T = 60 (35.1%); 35–44 years
T = 33 (19.3%); ≥ 45 years
F = 14 (8.2%)
M = 157 (91.8%)
Upper Limb T = 0.04 0.04
Ricco and Signorelli 2017 [53]
Cross-sectional:
January 2012
December 2013
Meat industry – Italy
Trained clinician
Full medical assessment
Ultrasonography and/or NCS in clinically possible cases
91.8%
T = 434; ȳ = 37.0 years
F = 198 (45.6%)
M = 236 (54.4%)
Carpal tunnel syndrome
F = 0.21
M = 0.11
0.14
Roquelaure et al. 2002 [54]
Cohort: 1996–1997
Shoe industry – France
Occupational physicians
Interview
Physical examination
90%
Year 1996:
T = 253; ȳ = 40.2 years
F = 158 (62%)
M = 95 (38%)
Year 1997:
T = 191; ȳ = 41.1 years
F = 117 (61%)
M = 74 (39%)
Tension Neck Syndrome T = 0.04 (n = 7); 1997
Rotator Cuff Syndrome T = 0.06 (n = 12); 1997
Medial Epicondylitis T = 0; 1997
Lateral Epicondylitis T = 0.02 (n = 4); 1997
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome T = 0.03 (n = 5); 1997
Radial Tunnel Syndrome T = 0.01 (n = 2); 1997
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome T = 0.12 (n = 23); 1997
Guyon’s Canal Syndrome T = 0.005 (n = 1); 1997
Hand-Wrist Tendinitis T = 0.03 (n = 6); 1997
Lateral epicondylitis = 0.02
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = 0.12
Wrist Tendinitis = 0.03
  1. FOM Food and organic material manufacture, PRP Petrochemical, rubber and plastics manufacture, MAP Metallic and automotive products manufacture, MM Metals manufacture, AM Automotive manufacture, FDI Food and drink industry, GI Garment industry, SLI Shoe and leather industry, WW Manufacture of wood and wood products, PPP Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products, PPR Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media, CI Chemical industry, NMM Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products, BM Manufacture of basic metals, FMP Manufacture of fabricated metal products, EON Manufacture of electrical and optical equipment not elsewhere classified, EO Manufacture of electrical and optical equipment, MM Manufacture of motor vehicles, MOT Manufacture of other transport equipment, FWI Manufacture of furniture and wood industries, R Recycling, TI Textile industry; FI Food industry, P Packaging, T Total, F Females, M Males, ȳ Mean age, / = Not reported