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Table 4 Diagnostic accuracy for clinical tests for cervicogenic headache and migraine

From: Differentiating migraine, cervicogenic headache and asymptomatic individuals based on physical examination findings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Clinical Test Assessment Sensitivity/specificity LR+/LR- PPV/NPV
Hall, 2008 [84] FRT experienced examiners 90–90/90–85 9–6/0.12–0.11 0.9–0.85/0.9–0.89
FRT inexperienced examiners 83–83/92–83 10–5/0.2–0.18 0.9–0.83/0.84–0.83
Hall, 2010 [16, 85] FRT 70/70 2.33/0.43 0.54/0.82
Jull, 2007 [19] Group of tests: cervical ROM, palpation C0-C3, CCFT 100/94.4 −/− −/−
Ogince, 2007 [17] FRT 91.3–91.3/91.4–88.6 10.65–7.99/0.095–0.098 0.87–0.84/0.94–0.94
Zito, 2006 [14] PAIVM C0-C1 CGH 70.4/76 2.93/0.39 0.76/0.70
PAIVM C1-C2 CGH 72.2/80 3.61/0.35 0.79/0.72
PAIVM C2-C3 CGH 48/92 6/0.56 0.86/0.62
PAIVM C3-C4 CGH 20.3/96 5.1/0.83 0.84/0.53
PAIVM C0-C1 M 28/76 1.16/0.95 0.54/0.25
PAIVM C1-C2 M 28/80 1.4/0.9 0.58/0.22
PAIVM C2-C3 M 20/92 2.5/0.87 0.71/0.1
PAIVM C3-C4 M 16/96 4/0.87 0.8/0.05
  1. LR+/LR- positive likelihood ratio/negative likelihood ratio, PPV/NPV positive predictive value/negative predictive value, CGH cervicogenic headache, M Migraine, FRT Flexion-Rotation Test, ROM Range Of Motion, PAIVM Passive Accessory Intervertebral Movement, CCFT Cranio-Cervical Flexion Test