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Table 8 Comparison of degree of HO and BL among the current smokers, former smokers and non-smokers

From: The impact of smoking on outcomes following anterior cervical fusion-nonfusion hybrid surgery: a retrospective single-center cohort study

  Current smoker Former smoker Nonsmoker P value
Heterotopic ossification 24 22 46 0.097
1 0 4 6  
2 18 14 34  
3 0 4 2  
4 6 0 4  
Bone loss 22 22 40  < 0.001*
1 10 12 39  
2 6 9 0  
3 6 1 1  
4 0 0 0  
  1. HO heterotopic ossification, BL bone loss. *P < 0.05, statistically significant