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Table 7 The impact of smoking on female anterior cervical HS patients

From: The impact of smoking on outcomes following anterior cervical fusion-nonfusion hybrid surgery: a retrospective single-center cohort study

  Current smoker Former smoker Nonsmoker P value
Number of patients 16 18 68  
Final Outcomes
JOA 15.63 ± 0.81 15.67 ± 1.08 15.72 ± 1.03 0.935
NDI 9.13 ± 3.63 7.89 ± 2.81 8.07 ± 2.71 0.374
VAS-arm 1.69 ± 0.70 1.56 ± 0.86 1.65 ± 0.94 0.901
VAS-neck 1.50 ± 0.52 1.56 ± 0.51 1.47 ± 0.61 0.857
Segmental ROM 8.70 ± 4.12 8.12 ± 4.04 8.22 ± 4.18 0.902
C2-7 ROM 36.23 ± 12.00 38.14 ± 13.02 37.95 ± 10.96 0.853
Early fusion effect 1.92 ± 0.75 2.34 ± 1.02 3.34 ± 1.02  < 0.001*
1-year fusion rate 11 16 65 0.006*
  1. HS hybrid surgery, JOA Japanese Orthopaedic Association, NDI neck disability index, VAS visual analog scale, ROM range of motion. *P < 0.05, statistically significant