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Table 5 Comparison of observed effects of usual exercise therapy for each subgroup with hypothesized effects (research question 3; findings resulting in accepted hypotheses in bold)

From: Construct validity of the OCTOPuS stratification algorithm for allocating patients with knee osteoarthritis into subgroups

  Low muscle strength subgroup Obesity subgroup High muscle strength subgroup
  Observed Hypothesized Observed Hypothesized Observed Hypothesized
Knee pain
 Effect size1 1.05 0.8 ± 0.2 1.10 0.5 ± 0.2 0.82 0.2 ± 0.2
 % persons with MIC2 70% > 67% 72% 33–67% 66% < 33%
Physical function
 Effect size1 0.79 0.8 ± 0.2 0.78 0.5 ± 0.2 0.49 0.2 ± 0.2
 % persons with MIC3 79% > 67% 76% 33–67% 76% < 33%
Quad. strength / 30s-CST
 Effect size1 0.74/ 0.73 0.8 ± 0.2 0.27/ 0.60 0.5 ± 0.2 0.19/ 0.32 0.2 ± 0.2
 % persons with MIC4,5 49% / 31% > 67% 32% / 28% 33–67% 7% / 9% < 33%
  1. MIC = minimal important change. 1 Effect size (within-group) = change score within group / standard deviation at baseline; 2 MIC defined as improvement on NRS/VAS pain (0–100) ≥ 15% and/or ≥ 1 point [25]; 3MIC defined as improvement on WOMAC physical function (0–100) ≥ 12% [26]; 4 MIC defined as improvement on quadriceps strength ≥30% [27]; 5 MIC defined as improvement on 30s-CST ≥ 2 repetitions [28]