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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comparison of the disability and control groups

From: Association of global sagittal spinal deformity with functional disability two years after total hip arthroplasty

  Disability group
n = 30
Control group
n = 178
P value
Age (years) 74.9 ± 7.1 74.2 ± 7.3 0.745
Male (n, %) 4, 13.3 21, 11.8 0.811
Body height (cm) 153.1 ± 3.1 156.7 ± 4.3 0.020*
Body height < 148 cm (n, %) 6, 20.0 12, 6.7 0.042*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 3.1 24.5 ± 3.1 0.723
Pre-operative diagnosis (n, %)    0.174
 Primary osteoarthritisa 3, 10.0 15, 8.4  
 Secondary osteoarthritisa 22, 73.3 143, 80.3  
 Osteonecrosis of the femoral head 2, 6.7 16, 9.0  
 Others 3, 10.0 4, 2.2  
Kellgren-Lawrence classification (n)
 Garde II: III: IV 0: 5: 20 0: 32: 126 0.977
Prevalent vertebral fractures (n, %)    0.466
 0 22, 73.3 144, 80.9  
 1 6, 20.0 29, 16.3  
 2+ 2, 6.7 5, 2.8  
Surgeons’ experience (n, %)    0.310
  < 8 years 2, 6.7 6, 3.4  
 8–15 years 16, 53.3 76, 42.7  
  > 15 years 12, 40.0 96, 53.9  
Modified Harris Hip Scoreb, c 49.2 ± 12.8 53.4 ± 13.1 0.544
66.2 ± 7.8 91.7 ± 6.9 0.038*
Visual analogue scale-pain (mm)c 87.6 ± 21.8 71.8 ± 22.9 0.352
22.7 ± 13.2 16.9 ± 13.1 0.611
Visual analogue scale-satisfaction (mm)c 84.1 ± 14.3 75.1 ± 13.7 0.747
55.9 ± 12.3 14.9 ± 13.1 0.033*
HOOS-JRc 48.1 ± 13.8 45.9 ± 13.6 0.917
52.8 ± 16.1 87.5 ± 14.3 0.010*
EuroQol 5-Dimensionc 0.43 ± 0.17 0.43 ± 0.11 0.894
0.63 ± 0.12 0.70 ± 0.12 0.125
Trendelenburg sign (n, %)c 8, 26.7 43, 24.2 0.768
6, 20.0 7, 3.9 < 0.001*
C7 sagittal vertical axis (mm)c 25.1 ± 31.9 22.8 ± 33.5 0.763
27.0 ± 31.7 25.2 ± 32.9 0.648
Lumbar lordosis (°)c 34.1 ± 15.5 52.9 ± 16.7 0.016*
37.1 ± 14.8 50.5 ± 17.5 0.018*
Pelvic incidence (°)c 45.8 ± 13.2 47.2 ± 13.7 0.691
45.6 ± 13.5 47.2 ± 13.4 0.863
Pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (°)c 11.7 ± 11.7 −5.7 ± 10.7 0.027*
8.5 ± 12.1 −3.3 ± 10.1 0.265
Pelvic tilt (°)c 13.7 ± 8.1 13.2 ± 10.8 0.724
14.2 ± 9.3 14.8 ± 11.3 0.717
T1 pelvic angle (°)c 14.7 ± 13.2 8.5 ± 8.1 0.041*
15.5 ± 13.8 9.9 ± 9.4 0.032*
T1 pelvic angle divided by pelvic incidencec 0.32 ± 0.11 0.18 ± 0.09 0.018*
0.34 ± 0.14 0.21 ± 0.08 0.023*
Complication at the reattached fragmentd
 Total, (n, %) 7, 23.3 13, 7.3 0.006*
 Type I: II: III (n) 2: 3: 2 8: 4: 1 0.286
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or the number of hip involvement (%) as appropriate for the data type
  2. *P < .05; represents significant between-group differences
  3. HOOS-JR the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Joint Replacement
  4. aPrimary hip osteoarthritis was unassociated with developmental dysplasia of the hip. The dysplasia was defined as a center edge angle of ≤25°, acetabular roof obliquity of ≥10°, or acetabular head index of ≤75% [20]
  5. bComposite measure covering pain and function, scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with a higher value representing improved function and decreased pain
  6. cBetween-group comparisons of outcomes pre-operatively (upper row) and at the two-year follow-up (lower row)
  7. dTip and base fractures of the greater trochanter for Types I and II, respectively; and a migration of the osteotomized fragment for Type III [22]