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Table 1 Preoperative demographics and characteristics

From: Duloxetine reduces pain after Total hip arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized controlled study

  Duloxetine (n = 48) Placebo (n = 48) P value
Demographic data
 Agea (yr) 52.7 ± 12.0 50.2 + 13.2 0.333
 Male sexb (no.[%] of patients) 22 (46%) 24 (50%) 0.683
 BMIa (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 2.9 23.9 ± 3.4 0.890
ASA statusb (no.[%] of patients)
 I 8 (17%) 4 (8%)  
 II 28 (58%) 32 (67%)  
 III 12 (25%) 12 (25%)  
Surgical site (right/left) 27/21 24/24  
Diagnosisb (no.of patients)
 Osteonecrosis of femoral head 16 (33%) 17 (35%)  
 Primary osteoarthritis 15 (31%) 13 (27%)  
 Developmental dysplasia of the hip 9 (19%) 10 (21%)  
 Others 8 (17%) 8 (17%)  
Preoperative parametersa
 hip function
  Flexion (°) 91.7 ± 11.8 90.2 ± 15.8 0.610
  Abduction (°) 21.5 ± 7.3 21.6 ± 8.4 0.948
  Harris Hip Score (points) 42.1 ± 9.2 41.2 ± 10.6 0.652
 BPI-pain severity score
  Average 5.4 ± 1.3 5.3 ± 1.1 0.666
  Worst 7.6 ± 1.4 7.2 ± 1.7 0.128
  Least 2.7 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 1.1 0.861
  Current 5.4 ± 1.6 5.1 ± 1.2 0.243
 BPI-interference score
  General activity 6.5 ± 2.0 6.5 ± 2.3 0.925
  Walking 7.3 ± 1.9 7.4 ± 2.5 0.853
  Work 6.5 ± 2.1 7.3 ± 2.3 0.082
  Sleep 5.0 ± 2.1 4.5 ± 2.3 0.264
  Relations with others 5.0 ± 2.3 4.7 ± 1.6 0.408
  Enjoyment of life 4.8 ± 1.5 4.5 ± 1.6 0.430
  Mood 5.2 ± 2.0 5.5 ± 2.4 0.512
 HAMD 3.3 ± 1.3 3.0 ± 1.4 0.246
 HAMA 3.4 ± 1.4 3.2 ± 1.4 0.425
  1. BPI Brief Pain Inventory
  2. aData are given as the mean ± standard deviation
  3. bData are given as the number (percentage) of patients