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Table 3 Pre and post-operative data in group 1 and 2 and the changes between the groups

From: The influence of preoperative knee flexion contracture severity on short-term outcome of orthopedic surgery in ambulatory children with bilateral cerebral palsy

  Group 1
(n = 30)
Group 2
(n = 30)
Group 1 vs Group 2
  Pre
Mean (SD)
Post
Mean (SD)
Mean diff (SD) P-
value
Pre
Mean (SD)
Post
Mean (SD)
Mean diff (SD) P-
value
Mean diff
(95%CI)
P-
value
Knee flexion contracture (degrees) 4.6 (5.3) 2.1 (8.3) 2.5 (7.4) 0.071 17.2 (4.9) 9.6 (9.3) 8.2 (8.8) 0.001* 5.7 (1.5–9.9) 0.009*
Gait Deviation Index 66 (19) 74 (15) 8 (13) 0.004* 60 (13) 69 (15) 9 (12) 0.001* 1 (5–8) 0.675
Knee flexion at initial contact (degrees) 47.6 (13.4)
range 30–91
39.1 (12.1)
range 12–69
8.5 (13.4) 0.002* 52.2 (9.4)
range 30–72
42.4 (10.4)
range 32–75
9.8 (13.0) 0.001* 1.3 (−5.6–8.1) 0.716
Minimal knee flexion in stance (degrees) 21.4 (16.1)
range 21–75
12.1 (16.0)
range 12–61
9.3 (14.7) 0.002* 32.2 (14.2)
range 18–69
17.0 (15.9)
range
8–74
15.2 (16.3) 0.001* 5,9 (− 2.1–13.9) 0.148
Walking speed (cm/s) 79 (27) 78 (30) −0.3 (22,8) 0.786 55 (30) 67 (35) 11.5 (25.1) 0.018* −11,8 (0.6–24.2) 0.062
Step length (cm) 40.8 (10.0) 43.9 (10.0) 3.1 (6.4) 0.017* 33.9 (13.2) 39.3 (14.9) 5.4 (10.5) 0.008* −2.3 (−2.3–7.0) 0.316
GMFM-D (points) 23.3 (8.0) 24.2 (9.5) −1.9 (8.2) 0.553 16.5 (10.1) 22.1 (9.3) 3.1 (6.7) 0.001* −5.0 (1.1–8.8) 0.014*
Popliteal angle (degrees) 59.0 (12.4) 49.1 (17.0) 9.9 (15.1) 0.001* 71.9 (12.2) 55.7 (13.0) 16.2 (18.5) < 0.05* 6.2 (−2.6–15.1) 0.163
Hamstring spasticity (points) 1.3 (0.8) 0.9 (0.5) 0.4 (0.8) 0.013* 1.6 (0.7) 0.9 (0.5) 0.7 (0.8) < 0.05* 0.2 (−0.2–0.6) 0.358
  1. Pre: pre-operative; Post: post-operative; SD: standard deviation; Mean diff: Mean difference; Gait Deviation Index; GMFM-D: Gross Motor Function Measure, dimension D; *: statistically significant. Knee flexion at initial contact refers to the start of the gait cycle when the foot first has contact with the floor. Minimal knee flexion in stance refers to the point when the least (minimal) knee flexion occurs