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Table 2 Scores on the variables used to derive the LCA (latent class analysis) phenotype classes for the different musculoskeletal diagnosis groups

From: Recovery trajectories in common musculoskeletal complaints by diagnosis contra prognostic phenotypes

  Pain area
Neck Shoulder Back Complex
Pain variables
 Pain intensity (0–10), mean (SD) 5.3 (2.3) 4.3 (2.1) 5.3 (2.2) 5.4 (2.1)
 Number of pain sites (0–10), mean (SD) 3.7 (2.1) 2.4 (1.4) 3.2 (2.5) 5.6 (2.6)
 Continuous paina, n (%) 22 (58) 21 (44) 13 (42) 14 (50)
 Pain duration, n (%)
   < 3 months 13 (35) 16 (33) 5 (17) 4 (14)
  3- < 12 months 11 (30) 17 (35) 12 (40) 4 (14)
   ≥ 12 months 13 (35) 15 (31) 13 (43) 20 (71)
Beliefs and thoughts
 Recovery expectationsb (0–10), mean (SD) 5.6 (3.2) 4.5 (2.5) 6.4 (2.3) 7.0 (2.4)
 Pain self-efficacyc (0–12),mean (SD) 8.7 (2.5) 10.0 (2.5) 9.5 (2.6) 7.6 (2.7)
Psychological
 Mental distressd (1–4), mean (SD) 1.9 (0.5) 1.5 (0.4) 1.7 (0.5) 2.3 (0.6)
 Fear avoidancee (0–10), mean (SD) 4.3 (3.4) 3.3 (3.4) 3.1 (2.9) 4.4 (3.3)
Activity and lifestyle
 Work abilityf (0–10),mean (SD) 5.6 (2.8) 7.0 (2.6) 6.2 (3.0) 3.8 (2.4)
 Daily activity levelg, n (%)
  Very much reduced 7 (18) 1 (2) 4 (13) 5 (18)
  Quite reduced 10 (26) 12 (26) 12 (42) 15 (54)
  Slightly reduced 20 (53) 25 (53) 10 (32) 7 (25)
  Not reduced 1 (3) 9 (19) 4 (13) 1 (4)
 Sleeph, n (%)
  No problem 5 (13) 14 (29) 11 (37) 3 (11)
  Slight problems 16 (41) 24 (50) 12 (40) 10 (36)
  Moderate problems 13 (33) 9 (19) 4 (13) 12 (43)
  Great/severe problems 5 (13) 1 (2) 3 (10) 3 (11)
  1. aContinuous pain: “Is the pain was continuous?”
  2. bRecovery expectation: “In your view, how large is the risk that your current pain may become persistent?” (0 = no risk; 10 = very large risk)
  3. cPain self-efficacy: Two questions: 1) “I can do some form of work, despite pain (work includes housework and pain/unpaid work”, and 2) “I can live a normal lifestyle, despite pain”. Response options ranging from 0 (not at all) to 6 (completely confident) on both questions. Response options added together, ranging from 0 to 12 (higher score indicate higher levels of self-efficacy)
  4. dMental distress: The Hopkins Symptom Check List-10 item (HSCL-10)
  5. eFear avoidance: «I should not do my normal activities or work with my present pain?” (0 = completely disagree; 10 completely agree)
  6. fWork ability: «What is your current work ability compared with the lifetime best?” (10 = best)
  7. g“Due to pain or complaints, how much reduced is your activities of daily life?”
  8. h“Which alternative best describes your present sleeping status”