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Table 1 A summary of the outcome measures

From: Exercise and education for community-dwelling older participants with knee osteoarthritis: a video-linked programme protocol based on a randomised controlled trial

Measurements Metric of measurement Method of measurement Time point of primary interest
Primary outcomes
 Self-reported pain 0–10 (higher scores indicate more serious pain) 11-point numerical pain rating scale Baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after allocation
 Self-reported function 0–68 (higher scores indicate more serious dysfunction) Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) – physical function subscale
Secondary outcomes
 Self-reported pain 0–20 (higher scores indicate more serious pain) WOMAC pain subscale Baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after allocation
 Functional performance Metres (longer distance indicates better function) 6-min walk test (6MWT)
Seconds (shorter time indicates better function) Timed up & go (TUG) test
 Sensitisation in resting state Kilogram (lighter pressure indicates a greater degree of sensitisation or increased pain sensitivity) Pressure pain threshold (PPT)
 Exercise-dependent sensitisation 0–11 (higher scores indicate a greater degree of sensitisation or increased pain sensitivity) Changes in self-reported pain pre-, post- and during exercise via 11-point numerical pain rating scale in exercise diaries
 Catastrophising 0–52 (higher scores indicate a greater degree of pain catastrophising) Pain catastrophising scale (PCS)
 Fear related to movements 17–68 (higher scores indicate more serious fear) Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK)
 Self-trust in exercise 0–70 (higher scores indicate stronger confidence) Self-efficacy for exercise scale (SEES)
 Self-trust in pain 0–50 (higher scores indicate stronger confidence) Pain self-efficacy questionnaire (PSEQ)
 Acquisition of knowledge about KOA 0–156 (higher scores indicate less knowledge of KOA) Educational needs assessment tool (ENAT)
 Mental resilience 10–50 (higher scores indicate stronger adaptation competence in the face of problems) 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC-10)
 Perceived social support 8–50 (higher scores indicate more satisfying social support) Satisfaction with received social support (SRSS)
 Pain affecting social participation 16–96 (higher scores indicate more serious impairment in social participation) Pain inference subscale of the West Haven Yale multidimensional pain inventory (WHYMPI)
 Quality of life Standardised scores for every section (higher scores indicate more serious impairment in social participation) 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) Baseline, and 12 and 24 weeks after allocation
Other assessments
 Comorbid conditions 1–41 (higher scores indicate more complex and dangerous comorbid conditions) Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) Baseline
 Level of physical activity Four levels divided into inactive, light-, moderate-, hard-, and very hard-intensity. Stanford brief activity survey (SBAS)
 Overall mental health 14–70 (higher scores indicate better psychological health) Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS)
 Drugs, physical therapies, and other therapies used Type, frequency, duration Self-report  
  1. Abbreviations: CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CD-RISC-10 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, ENAT Educational needs assessment tool, KOA Knee osteoarthritis, PCS Pain catastrophising scale, PPT Pressure pain threshold, PSEQ Pain self-efficacy questionnaire, SBAS Stanford brief activity survey, SF-36 36-item short form health survey, SEES Self-efficacy for exercise scale, SRSS Satisfaction with received social support, TSK Tampa scale for kinesiophobia, TUG Timed up and go test, WEMWBS Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale, WHYMPI West Haven Yale multidimensional pain inventory, 6MWT Six-minute walk test