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Table 2 Mean Change, Standardized Effect Size, Standardized Response Mean and Responsiveness Statistic of EQ-5D Score and EQ-VAS by Disease Activity and GRS

From: Responsiveness of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire in patients with spondyloarthritis

Measure/subscale Baseline (Mean±SD) At follow-up (Mean±SD) Paired difference (Mean±SD) P-value SES (95% CI) SRM (95% CI) RS (95% CI)
Disease activity measured by BASDAI
 Worsened group (N=13)
  EQ-5D score 0.79±0.11 0.71±0.14 -0.08±0.08 0.004* -0.70 (-1.05,-0.31) -1.00 (-1.51,-0.45) -0.74 (-1.12,-0.33)
  EQ-VAS 56.92±17.02 54.46±13.56 -2.46±15.45 0.576 -0.14 (-0.70,0.27) -0.16 (-0.77,0.30) -0.12 (-0.56,0.22)
 Unchanged group (N=88)
  EQ-5D score 0.81±0.18 0.80±0.20 -0.01±0.11 0.435 -0.05 (-0.17,0.08) -0.08 (-0.29,0.13) -0.08 (-0.29,0.13)
  EQ-VAS 66.69±17.39 65.31±19.01 -1.39±21.34 0.544 -0.08 (-0.36,0.16) -0.06 (-0.29,0.13) -0.06 (-0.29,0.13)
 Improved group (N=12)
  EQ-5D score 0.71±0.13 0.83±0.11 0.11±0.13 0.012* 0.84 (0.42,1.48) 0.87 (0.44,1.54) 1.05 (0.53,1.86)
  EQ-VAS 60.25±13.46 67.17±11.61 6.92±13.61 0.106 0.51 (-0.09,1.00) 0.51 (-0.09,0.99) 0.32 (-0.05,0.63)
Clinical improvement measured by MCII of BASDAI
 Clinically improved group (N=15)
  EQ-5D score 0.69±0.14 0.84±0.13 0.15±0.12 0.001* 1.07 (0.47,1.81) 1.19 (0.55,1.67) 1.03 (0.48,1.60)
  EQ-VAS 56.20±18.18 65.40±14.8 9.20±20.64 0.106 0.55 (-0.05,1.29) 0.45 (-0.13,1.06) 0.51 (-0.06,1.13)
 Unchanged or no clinical improvement (N=98)
  EQ-5D score 0.81±0.17 0.80±0.18 -0.01±0.11 0.287 -0.07 (-0.21,0.06) -0.11 (-0.34,0.08) -0.07 (-0.21,0.06)
  EQ-VAS 66.21±16.75 64.08±18.57 -2.13±19.71 0.282 -0.12 (-0.34,0.08) -0.11 (-0.30,0.09) -0.13 (-0.38,0.09)
Clinical improvement measured by MCII of BASFI
 Clinically improved group (N=16)
  EQ-5D score 0.62±0.19 0.76±0.17 0.14±0.13 0.001* 0.79 (0.45,1.23) 1.12 (0.74,1.48) 0.73 (0.41,1.22)
  EQ-VAS 54.06±19.81 62.81±14.80 8.75±23.13 0.151 0.50 (-0.31,1.12) 0.38 (-0.24, 1.01) 0.44 (-0.27,1.02)
Unchanged or no clinical improvement (N=97)
  EQ-5D score 0.83±0.15 0.81±0.17 -0.01±0.11 0.268 -0.08 (-0.22,0.06) -0.11 (-0.32,0.09) -0.08 (-0.24,0.06)
  EQ-VAS 66.67±16.16 64.49±18.61 -2.18±19.27 0.269 -0.12 (-0.36,0.10) -0.11 (-0.31,0.09) -0.13 (-0.42,0.10)
Disease activity measured by ASDAS-CRP
 Clinically improved group (N=0)
  EQ-5D score        
  EQ-VAS        
 Not clinically improved group (N=113)
  EQ-5D score 0.80±0.17 0.79±0.18 0.00±0.11 0.706 -0.02 (-0.15,0.10) -0.04 (-0.22,0.16)  
  EQ-VAS 64.88±17.21 64.26±18.07 -0.63±20.11 0.740 -0.04 (-0.26,0.16) -0.03 (-0.22,0.14)  
Global rating of change
 Worsened group (N=39)
  EQ-5D score 0.78±0.13 0.77±0.14 -0.01±0.10 0.754 -0.04 (-0.26,0.21) -0.05 (-0.34,0.28) -0.05 (-0.31,0.26)
  EQ-VAS 62.90±15.53 58.49±14.83 -4.41±20.33 0.184 -0.28 (-0.72,0.10) -0.22 (-0.55,0.08) -0.21 (-0.53,0.07)
 Unchanged group (N=35)
  EQ-5D score 0.80±0.18 0.79±0.19 -0.01±0.11 0.671 -0.04 (-0.24,0.15) -0.07 (-0.40,0.25) -0.07 (-0.40,0.25)
  EQ-VAS 66.69±18.65 60.00±19.89 -6.69±21.04 0.069 -0.36 (-0.76,0.00) -0.32 (-0.67,0.00) -0.32 (-0.67,0.00)
 Improved group (N=24)
  EQ-5D score 0.83±0.17 0.86±0.12 0.03±0.13 0.286 0.17 (-0.08,0.55) 0.22 (-0.10,0.73) 0.26 (-0.12,0.85)
  EQ-VAS 68.96±15.32 77.33±13.15 8.38±14.80 0.011* 0.55 (0.22,1.00) 0.57 (0.23,1.03) 0.40 (0.16,0.72)
  1. BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; CRP C-reactive protein; EQ-5D EuroQol 5-Dimension; EQ-VAS EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; MCII Minimum Clinically Important Improvement
  2. * denotes statistical significance