Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients

From: Responsiveness of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire in patients with spondyloarthritis

   Baseline
(N=151)
Follow-up Completion
(N=113)
Follow-up Incompletion (N=38) P-value
Demographic, % (n)
 Age, mean ± SD 45.5±13.0 44.7±13.0 47.6±12.7 0.234
 Gender     0.145
  Female 30.5 % (46) 33.6 % (38) 21.1 % (8)  
  Male 69.5 % (105) 66.4 % (75) 78.9 % (30)  
 Smoking      0.011*
  Non-smoker 81.5 % (123) 86.7 % (98) 65.8 % (25)  
  Smoker 9.9 % (15) 6.2 % (7) 21.1 % (8)  
  Ex-smoker 8.6 % (13) 7.1 % (8) 13.2 % (5)  
 Drinking      0.732
  Non-drinker 29.3 % (44) 30.4 % (34) 26.3 % (10)  
  Ex-drinker 11.3 % (17) 9.8 % (11) 15.8 % (6)  
  Social drinker 55.3 % (83) 55.4 % (62) 55.3 % (21)  
  Current drinker 4.0 % (6) 4.5 % (5) 2.6 % (1)  
 Education level     0.009*
  Primary 8.0 % (12) 9.8 % (11) 2.6 % (1)  
  Secondary 47.3 % (71) 40.2 % (45) 68.4 % (26)  
  Tertiary or above 44.7 % (67) 50.0 % (56) 29.0 % (11)  
 Family income level     0.550
  <HK$10000 18.0 % (27) 17.9 % (20) 18.4 % (7)  
  HK$10000-30000 43.3 % (65) 41.1 % (46) 50.0 % (19)  
  HK$30000-60000 20.7 % (31) 20.5 % (23) 21.1 % (8)  
  >HK$60000 18.0 % (27) 20.5 % (23) 10.5 % (4)  
 Occupation     0.905
  Student 7.3 % (11) 8.0 % (9) 5.3 % (2)  
  Housewife 5.3 % (8) 4.4 % (5) 7.9 % (3)  
  Work 72.9 % (110) 72.6 % (82) 73.7 % (28)  
  Unemployed 3.3 % (5) 3.5 % (4) 2.6 % (1)  
  Retired 11.3 % (17) 11.5 % (13) 10.5 % (4)  
Clinical, % (n)
 Positive HLA-B27     0.267
  No 18.7 % (26) 20.8 % (22) 12.1 % (4)  
  Yes 81.3 % (113) 79.2 % (84) 87.9 % (29)  
 BASDAI     0.588
  Low disease activity (<4) 61.6 % (93) 62.8 % (71) 57.9 % (22)  
  High disease activity (>=4) 38.4 % (58) 37.2 % (42) 42.1 % (16)  
 ASDAS-CRP     <0.001*
  Inactive disease (<1.3) 39.7 % (60) 47.8 % (54) 15.8 % (6)  
  Moderate disease activity (1.3-2.1) 30.5 % (46) 30.1 % (34) 31.6 % (12)  
  High disease activity (2.1-3.5) 26.5 % (40) 21.2 % (24) 42.1 % (16)  
  Very high disease activity (>3.5) 3.3 % (5) 0.9 % (1) 10.5 % (4)  
 Family History      0.655
  No 71.8 % (107) 71.2 % (79) 73.7 % (28)  
  Yes 26.8 % (40) 27.9 % (31) 23.7 % (9)  
 Axial spondyloarthritis      0.078
  No 17.2 % (26) 20.4 % (23) 7.9 % (3)  
  Yes 82.8 % (125) 79.6 % (90) 92.1 % (35)  
 Peripheral spondyloarthritis      0.030*
  No 83.4 % (126) 79.6 % (90) 94.7 % (36)  
  Yes 16.6 % (25) 20.4 % (23) 5.3 % (2)  
 Peripheral arthritis     0.093
  No 62.3 % (94) 58.4 % (66) 73.7 % (28)  
  Yes 37.7 % (57) 41.6 % (47) 26.3 % (10)  
 Dactylitis     0.787
  No 96.7 % (146) 96.5 % (109) 97.4 % (37)  
  Yes 3.3 % (5) 3.5 % (4) 2.6 % (1)  
 Uveitis     0.872
  No 64.2 % (97) 64.6 % (73) 63.2 % (24)  
  Yes 35.8 % (54) 35.4 % (40) 36.8 % (14)  
 Psoriasis
  No 87.4 % (132) 85.0 % (96) 94.7 % (36)  
  Yes 12.6 % (19) 15.0 % (17) 5.3 % (2)  
 Inflammatory Bowel Disease      0.994
  No 97.4 % (147) 97.3 % (110) 97.4 % (37)  
  Yes 2.6 % (4) 2.7 % (3) 2.6 % (1)  
 HADS
  Depression     0.124
  Normal (0-7) 80.6 % (112) 79.8 % (83) 82.9 % (29)  
  Borderline (8–10) 14.4 % (20) 14.4 % (15) 14.3 % (5)  
  Abnormal (11–21) 5.0 % (7) 5.8 % (6) 2.9 % (1)  
  Anxiety     0.407
  Normal (0-7) 68.4 % (95) 71.2 % (74) 60.0 % (21)  
  Borderline (8–10) 20.9 % (29) 19.2 % (20) 25.7 % (9)  
  Abnormal (11–21) 10.8 % (15) 9.6 % (10) 14.3 % (5)  
 Backpain duration   16.6±12.1 15.9±11.5 17.4±12.7 0.540
 Current back pain      0.285
  No 22.0 % (33) 24.1 % (27) 15.8 % (6)  
  Yes 78.0 % (117) 75.9 % (85) 84.2 % (32)  
 Tender joints   0.36±1.23 0.40±1.36 0.24±0.75 0.488
 Swollen joints   0.21±1.12 0.25±1.28 0.08±0.36 0.424
 Dactylitis score   0.01±0.11 0.01±0.09 0.03±0.16 0.419
 Enthesitis score   0.23±0.77 0.28±0.86 0.08±0.36 0.158
Baseline treatment
 NSAIDs/COX-2 Inhibitors      0.892
  No 24.5 % (37) 24.8 % (28) 23.7 % (9)  
  Yes 75.5 % (114) 75.2 % (85) 76.3 % (29)  
 DMARDs      0.041*
  No 68.2 % (103) 63.7 % (72) 81.6 % (31)  
  Yes 31.8 % (48) 36.3 % (41) 18.4 % (7)  
 Biologics      0.102
  No 74.2 % (112) 70.8 % (80) 84.2 % (32)  
  Yes 25.8 % (39) 29.2 % (33) 15.8 % (6)  
Baseline disease activity status
  BASDAI 3.45±1.91 3.43±1.90 3.52±1.95 0.793
  BASFI 2.13±1.98 2.09±2.06 2.28±1.75 0.610
  BASMI 4.05±1.63 3.98±1.56 4.29±1.82 0.309
  ASDAS-ESR 2.36±0.92 2.34±0.93 2.42±0.88 0.655
  ASDAS-CRP 1.63±0.98 1.42±0.89 2.26±0.98 <0.001
  CRP (g/dL) 0.76±1.57 0.75±1.63 0.81±1.36 0.846
  ESR (mm/hr) 23.26±18.21 23.37±19.47 22.95±14.04 0.902
SF-36
  Physical functioning 75.97±19.90 75.88±19.70 76.25±20.75 0.923
  Role limitations due to physical functioning 70.62±25.36 69.38±25.53 74.18±24.84 0.317
  Bodily pain 33.64±8.68 33.34±9.01 34.54±7.65 0.468
  General health perceptions 54.76±9.27 54.09±9.40 56.73±8.72 0.135
  Vitality 53.93±11.51 53.75±10.55 54.44±14.08 0.751
  Role limitations due to emotional problems 72.35±23.73 72.50±23.77 71.93±23.92 0.899
  Social functioning 48.92±8.92 47.99±8.48 51.64±9.71 0.029*
  Mental health 56.17±10.62 56.21±10.76 56.05±10.34 0.938
  Physical component summary 38.24±7.24 37.97±7.27 39.03±7.20 0.696
  Mental component summary 42.76±5.34 42.75±5.24 42.77±5.71 0.988
HADS
  Anxiety 5.91±3.60 5.76±3.61 6.37±3.58 0.386
  Depression 4.81±3.46 4.71±3.56 5.11±3.17 0.553
  Total 10.70±6.59 10.43±6.68 11.49±6.32 0.415
  1. HLA-B27 Human leukocyte antigen B27; BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; CRP C-reactive protein; ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; NSAIDs Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2; DMARDs Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; SF-36 36-item short form questionnaire
  2. *statistically significant (p<0.05)