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Table 2 Post intervention comparison of pain, function and quadriceps peak force between the local exercise therapy and spinal manual therapy groups

From: Effectiveness of local exercise therapy versus spinal manual therapy in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: medium term follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial

  Local exercise group Spinal manual therapy group Between-group differences
6 weeks 12 weeks 6 weeks 12 weeks 6 weeks 12 weeks
Variables M M M M M Effect size P value c M Effect size P value c
Maximum pain (mm) 59.7 ± 22.0 a 52.7 ± 25.5 b 36.3 ± 23.0 a 34.0 ± 29.1 b 23.4 [9.3; 37.6] 1.036 0.002 18.7[1.4; 36.0] 0.676 0.034
Minimum pain (mm) 6.5(0.0; 12.5) 1.5(0.0; 17.0) 0.0(0.0; 1.0] a 0.0(0.0; 0.0) b 6.5(0.0; 11.5) −0.398 0.009 1.5(0.0; 17.0) −0.304 0.046
Current pain (mm) 15.0(3.8; 28.5) a 11.0(0.0; 31.8) 2.0(0.0; 11.5) a 0.0(0.0; 14.5) b 13.0(3.8; 17.0) −0.307 0.044 11.0(0.0; 17.3) −0.341 0.026
AKPS 70.9 ± 14.3 a 75.6 ± 14.9 b 83.3 ± 10.9 a 87.1 ± 12.1 b − 12.4[− 20.2; − 4.7] −1.000 0.002 − 11.5[− 19.9; − 3.3] −0.869 0.008
MVPF (N·m) 140.0(111.0; 167.0) 133.5(110.3; 160.3) 127.0(117.0; 144.5) 128.0(112.0; 153.0) b 13.0(− 6.0; 22.5) −0.098 0.522 5.5(−1.7; 6.7) −0.101 0.506
  1. M mean [95% CI] ± standard deviation for normal distributed variables or median (IQR) for non-normal distributed variables, AKPS anterior knee pain scale (0–100), MVPF maximum voluntary peak force, a significantly different between baseline and 6 weeks (P < 0.025), b significantly different between baseline and 12 weeks (P < 0.025), c Bonferroni correction P < 0.017 accepted as statistically significant for between group comparison, effect size = Cohen’s d