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Table 3 Comparison of VAS between Group T and Group TR without further surgery at different time

From: Transforaminal epidural steroid injection combined with radio frequency for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a 2-year follow-up

Group   Pre-operation Post-operation
1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months 24 months
Group T (n = 72) low back pain 7.04 ± 1.02 2.10 ± 0.96a 2.38 ± 0.97a 2.66 ± 1.07a 3.27 ± 1.02a 3.33 ± 0.93a
sciatica 7.59 ± 1.01 2.10 ± 0.99a 2.37 ± 0.96a 2.67 ± 1.07a 3.21 ± 0.96a 3.14 ± 0.89a
Group TR (n = 95) low back pain 7.12 ± 0.98 2.16 ± 0.87a 2.01 ± 0.90a 1.96 ± 0.78ab 2.20 ± 0.91ab 2.13 ± 0.72ab
sciatica 7.52 ± 1.04 2.15 ± 0.87a 2.10 ± 0.91a 1.98 ± 0.79ab 2.17 ± 0.91ab 2.38 ± 0.71ab
Time F, P low back pain 661.957,< 0.001
sciatica 666.713,< 0.001
Group F, P low back pain 30.212, < 0.001
sciatica 30.356, < 0.001
Time * Group F, P low back pain 18.496, =0.001
sciatica 14.635, < 0.001
  1. Notes: Patients who received open surgery during the 2-year study period were deleted. Data are presented as mean ± SD. The groups were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bonferroni correction was used to correct multiple comparisons. Group T: TFESI group; Group TF: TFESI combined with RF group; vs pre-operation in the same group, aP < 0.05; vs Group T in the same time, bP < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: VAS visual analog scale, TFESI transforaminal epidural steroid injection, RF radio frequency