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Table 2 Fear-of-falling at baseline and 1 year follow-up

From: Fear-of-falling and associated risk factors in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a 1 year prospective study

Variable Baseline high fear-of-falling
(n = 390)b
Baseline low fear of falling
(n = 168)
Follow up high fear-of-falling
(n = 181)
Follow up low fear-of-falling
(n = 73)
Demographics
 Female (n/%) 287 (73.6)** 99 (58.9) 122 (67.4) 52 (71.2)
 Agea 63 (12.7)** 59.9 (12.7) 62 (10.7)** 62 (10.0)
Disease factors
 Swollen joints (0–28) a 5 (6.7)** 3 (4.7) 5.0 (6.4)** 2.6 (4.4)
 Tender joints (0–28) a 6 (7.3)** 3 (4.9) 6 (7.2)** 4.1 (6.3)
 DAS28 score (0–10) a 5 (1.5)** 3 (1.4) 5 (1.5)** 3 (1.6)
 Taking steroids at baseline (n/%) 94 (24.1)* 23 (13.7) 42 (23.2)** 5 (6.8)
 VAS pain score (0–10)a 5 (2.6)** 3 (2.2) 4 (2.5)** 3 (2.3)
 VAS fatigue score (0–10)a 5 (2.6)** 3 (2.6) 5 (2.6)** 3 (2.6)
 HAQ score (1–4) a 3 (0.7)** 2 (0.5) 3 (0.8)** 2 (0.6)
Medical history
 History of fractures (n/%) 162 (41.5) 65 (38.7) 82 (45.3) 25 (34.2)
 Poor vision (reg. Blind, v poor or poor) (n/%) 37 (9.5) 9 (5.4) 13 (7.2) 6 (8.2)
 Previous surgery (n/%) 291 (74.6) 116 (69.0) 137 (75.7) 50 (68.5)
 Previous joint replacements (n/%) 99 (25.6) 26 (15.5) 44 (24.6) 1 5 (15.1)
 History of injuries from previous falls (n/%) 107 (30.7)** 17 (11.6) 48 (29.8)* 8 (12.1)
Fall risk factors
 No falls in previous year (n/%) 190 (48.7)** 126 (75.0) 91 (50.3)** 54 (74.0)
 History of single fall in previous year (n/%) 87 (22.3) 33 (19.6) 42 (23.2) 13 (17.8)
 History of multiple falls in previous year (n/%) 113 (29.0) 9 (5.4) 48 (26.5) 6 (8.2)
 History of stroke/Parkinson’s (n/%) 31 (7.9) 7 (4.2) 18 (9.9) 2 (2.7)
 Psychotropic medication (n/%) 87 (22.3)** 17 (10.1) 40 (22.1) 11 (15.1)
 Four or more types of medicines (n/%) 328 (84.1)** 103 (61.3) 148 (81.8)* 48 (65.8)
 Feeling dizzy or unsteady (n/%) 312 (80.0)** 57 (33.9) 136 (75.1)** 31 (42.5)
 Painful feet (n/%) 321 (82.5)** 109 (64.9) 143 (79.4) 48 (65.8)
Four test balance scale (n/%)
Fail at each level
 Unsuccessful 39 (10.0)** 0 (0.0) 13 (7.2)** 0 (0.0)
 Feet together stand 13 (3.3) 0 (0.0)* 6 (3.3) 1 (1.4)
 Semi-tandem stand 177 (45.4) 39 (23.2)* 75 (41.4) 18 (24.7)
 Tandem stand 81 (20.8) 34 (20.2)* 41 (22.7) 14 (19.2)
 One leg stand 80 (20.5) 95 (56.6)* 46 (25.4) 40 (54.8)
 Able to complete 5 chair stands (n/%) 316 (81.0)** 167 (99.4) 145 (80.1)** 72 (98.6)
  1. Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing suggests p < 5%/25 = 0.002 for significance in comparisons at baseline, or comparisons at follow up
  2. *P ≤ 0.01
  3. **P ≤ 0.002
  4. aMean (SD)
  5. bData missing for 1 participant