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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for self-evaluated improvement on main goal, dichotomized in improved (achieved main goal) and not improved (partly achieved or not achieved) and goal classes and demographical, anthropometric, psychosocial and disease-specific variables. Odds ratio > 1 indicates higher odds for reporting improved. N = 1031

From: Associations between treatment goals, patient characteristics, and outcome measures for patients with musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapy practice

Variable Crude estimates OR (95% CI) p Multiple regression model OR (95% CI) p
Goal classes   .082   .066
Symptom only Reference   Reference  
Function/structure included .80 (.54 to 1.19) .272 .59 (.34 to 1.00) .051
Activity/participation included 1.09 (.75 to 1.58) .669 .87 (.53 to 1.45) .611
Non-classifiable 1.34 (.81 to 2.23) .252 1.14 (.58 to 2.24) .708
Age .99 (.99 to 1.00) .112 1.00 (.99 to 1.01) .968
Gender 1.33 (1.01 to 1.77) .040 1.16 (.78 to 1.72) .455
BMI .99 (.97 to 1.01) .176   
Treatment beliefa   .076   
Totally agree     
Agree .70 (.51 to .96) .024   
Neither agree nor disagree .58 (.31 to 1.08) .085   
Emotional distress (HSCL10, score 1–4), .51 (.38 to .69) <.001 .58 (.40 to .85) .005
Severity (score 0–10) .84 (.77 to .91) <.001 .88 (.80 to .99) .025
Duration   <.001   .009
  < 3 m Reference   Reference  
3-12 m .48 (.32 to .73) .001 .54 (.33 to .86) .009
  > 12 m .51 (.35 to .73) <.001 .54 (.35 to .82) .004
Body region/diagnosis   .004   
Spinal Reference    
Upper extremities .84 (.57 to 1.23) .371   
Lower extremities .74 (.55 to 1.00) .050   
Unspecific/multisite conditions .40 (.24 to .66) <.001   
  1. OR Odds radio, CI Confidence intervals, HSCL10 = Hopkins Symptom Check List 10 item version. Severity = average of pain intensity last week (0–10) and inverted rating of PSFS (0–10), higher is worse
  2. a: Two patients answered disagree. Data not presented in table due to low number